Child Psychiatry & Human Development

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 445–454 | Cite as

Is Cyberbullying Related to Trait or State Anger?

  • Antonia Lonigro
  • Barry H. Schneider
  • Fiorenzo Laghi
  • Roberto Baiocco
  • Susanna Pallini
  • Thomas Brunner
Original Article


Anger is a powerful emotion shared by victims and bullies in both physical and electronic forms of bullying. However, little is known about the specific roles of trait anger and state anger in involvement in bullying episodes. The purpose of this study was to verify which component of anger, trait or state, is more strongly related to physical and cyberbullying and victimization. Students between the ages 11–19 (N = 716, 392 female, 324 male) completed the state trait anger expression inventory-2 child and adolescent and a measure of victimization and bullying. Results for cyberbullying suggested a major vulnerability among bullies and victims to experience anger as a personality trait as well some links between state anger, cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Moreover, the outward, explosive expression of anger appears to be common among cyber and physical bullies. Implications for intervention programs are discussed.


Bullying Cyberbullying Trait-anger State-anger Adolescence 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonia Lonigro
    • 1
  • Barry H. Schneider
    • 2
  • Fiorenzo Laghi
    • 3
  • Roberto Baiocco
    • 3
  • Susanna Pallini
    • 4
  • Thomas Brunner
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Developmental and Social PsychologyUniversity of Rome SapienzaRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Social Development and Mental HealthUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada
  3. 3.Department of Developmental and Social PsychologyUniversity of Rome SapienzaRomeItaly
  4. 4.Department of Educational ScienceUniversity of Rome IIIRomeItaly
  5. 5.Center for Character Strength Investment (CSI)TusconUSA

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