Impact of repetitive DNA on sex chromosome evolution in plants
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Structurally and functionally diverged sex chromosomes have evolved in many animals as well as in some plants. Sex chromosomes represent a specific genomic region(s) with locally suppressed recombination. As a consequence, repetitive sequences involving transposable elements, tandem repeats (satellites and microsatellites), and organellar DNA accumulate on the Y (W) chromosomes. In this paper, we review the main types of repetitive elements, their gathering on the Y chromosome, and discuss new findings showing that not only accumulation of various repeats in non-recombining regions but also opposite processes form Y chromosome. The aim of this review is also to discuss the mechanisms of repetitive DNA spread involving (retro) transposition, DNA polymerase slippage or unequal crossing-over, as well as modes of repeat removal by ectopic recombination. The intensity of these processes differs in non-recombining region(s) of sex chromosomes when compared to the recombining parts of genome. We also speculate about the relationship between heterochromatinization and the formation of heteromorphic sex chromosomes.
Keywordsrepetitive sequences transposable elements tandem repeats (satellites) microsatellites recombination sex chromosomes
Long terminal repeat
Rumex acetosa Y chromosome-specific sequence
Silene tandem repeat accumulated on the Y chromosome
Tandem Repeat Accumulated on the Y Chromosome
Nuclear insertions of plastid DNA
Nuclear insertions of mitochondrial DNA
Hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome
Male-specific region of the Y chromosome
Long interspersed nuclear element
This research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (grants P501/12/G090 to BV, P501/12/2220 to RH, 15-21523Y to ZK, and 15-02891S to EK). We would like to thank Alexander Oulton for the English corrections.
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