Ribosomal DNA locus evolution in Nemesia: transposition rather than structural rearrangement as the key mechanism?
We investigated chromosome evolution in Nemesia using fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) to identify the locations of 5S and 45S (18–26S) ribosomal genes. Although there was conservation between Nemesia species in chromosome number, size and centromere position, there was large variation in both number and position of ribosomal genes in different Nemesia species (21 different arrangements of 45S and 5S rRNA genes were observed in the 29 Nemesia taxa studied). Nemesia species contained between one and three pairs of 5S arrays and between two and four pairs of 45S arrays. These were either sub-terminally or interstitially located and 45S and 5S arrays were often located on the same chromosome pair. Comparison of the positions of rDNA arrays with meiotic chromosome behaviour in interspecific hybrids of Nemesia suggests that some of the changes in the positions of rDNA have not affected the surrounding chromosome regions, indicating that rDNA has changed position by transposition. Chromosome evolution is frequently thought to occur via structural rearrangements such as inversions and translocations. We suggest that, in Nemesia, transposition of rDNA genes may be equally if not more important in chromosome evolution.
Key wordschromosome evolution 5S and 45S rDNA fluorescence in-situ hybridization Nemesia Scrophulariaceae
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