Cortisol and IgA are Involved in the Progression of Alzheimer’s Disease. A Pilot Study
It is known that stress and immune systems are related with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the relationship of both systems in the progression of disease is not clearly demonstrated. Hair cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) were quantified in 49 patients with mild, moderate, and severe AD. A significant change was seen in both molecules as AD progressed from mild to moderate and severe. Low levels of cortisol were observed in mild AD patients compared with moderate and severe. However, IgA showed a contrary pattern. High levels were observed in mild AD patientes but low in moderate and severe AD subjects. The secretion of cortisol and IgA seems to be very different at the start compared with posterior development of AD suggesting that neuroinflammation can be involved. Both molecules could be used as possible therapeutical tools.
KeywordsAlzheimer’s disease Stress Immune system Cortisol Immunoglobulin A Neuroinflammation Progression
Asociacion Familiares Alzheimer Valencia
Mini Mental State Examination
The researchers of this study are grateful to all participants for their collaboration in the project. A special thank you to AFAV Association for providing the places and professionals to collect the data.
Consent for Publication
This manuscript has been read and approved by all authors, has not been previously published, and is not under simultaneous consideration by another journal. The authors give consent for publication in Molecular Neurodegeneration.
Availability of Data and Materials
Materials and/or datasets used/generated are included in the manuscript or available upon reasonable request.
The authors declare that this work is original and has not been published elsewhere nor is it currently under consideration for publication elsewhere.
JERO and MPGP conceived and designed the experiments and were responsible for the interpretation of the results; Mariano JR performed, analyzed the data, and made the figure of the results; SSC performed the ELISA technique. VPG and FJR wrote the first draft of the paper and JERO and MPGP wrote the final version of the manuscript.
This study was supported with funding from the company Alquería Ortí C.B and partially by Grant PROMETEO 94/2016 of the Generalitat Valenciana.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors of this manuscript declare that they have no competing interests.
The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Universidad de Valencia and all participants signed informed consent.
- Rodríguez-Arias M, García-Pardo MP, Montagud-Romero S et al (2013) The role of stress in psychostimulant addiction: treatment approaches based on animal models. New York, p 153–220Google Scholar
- Tan ZS, Beiser AS, Vasan RS et al (2007) Inflammatory markers and the risk of Alzheimer disease The Framingham Study. Neurology 68:1902–1908. https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000263217.36439.da CrossRefGoogle Scholar