Artemisia amygdalina Upregulates Nrf2 and Protects Neurons Against Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer Disease

Abstract

Alzheimer disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder. It is the common form of dementia in elderly people. The etiology of this disease is multifactorial, pathologically it is accompanied with accumulation of amyloid beta and neurofibrillary tangles. Accumulation of amyloid beta and mitochondrial dysfunction leads to oxidative stress. In this study, neuroprotective effect of Artemisiaamygdalina against H2O2-induced death was studied in differentiated N2a and SH-SY5Ycells. Cells were treated with H2O2 to induce toxicity which was attenuated by Artemisia amygdalina. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an emerging regulator of cellular resistance to oxidants. It controls the basal and induced expression of antioxidant response element-dependent genes. Further, we demonstrated that Artemisia amygdalina protects neurons through upregulation of Nrf2 pathway. Moreover, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential loss formed by H2O2 was attenuated by Artemisia amygdalina. Thus, Artemisia amygdalina may have the possibility to be a therapeutic agent for Alzheimer disease.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the support from University Grants Commission.

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NS has designed and performed the experiments and wrote the manuscript. ABW performed few experiments. RA helped with some experiments. SH carried few in vitro assays. AS and HH edited revised manuscript. RH and BAG supervised the findings of this work and reviewed the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Bashir Ahmad Ganai.

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Sajjad, N., Wani, A., Sharma, A. et al. Artemisia amygdalina Upregulates Nrf2 and Protects Neurons Against Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer Disease. Cell Mol Neurobiol 39, 387–399 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10571-019-00656-w

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Keywords

  • Artemisia amygdalina
  • Antioxidant
  • Oxidative stress
  • Neuroprotection
  • Nrf2