Glioma Cell and Astrocyte Co-cultures As a Model to Study Tumor–Tissue Interactions: A Review of Methods

Abstract

Astrocytes are a dominant cell type that envelopes the glioma bed. Typically, that is followed by formation of contacts between astrocytes and glioma cells and accompanied by change in astrocyte phenotype, a phenomenon known as a ‘reactive astrogliosis.’ Generally considered glioma-promoting, astrocytes have many controversial peculiarities in communication with tumor cells, which need thorough examination in vitro. This review is devoted to in vitro co-culture studies of glioma cells and astrocytes. Firstly, we list several fundamental works which allow understanding the modalities of co-culturing. Cell-to-cell interactions between astrocytes and glioma cells, the roles of astrocytes in tumor metabolism, and glioma-related angiogenesis are reviewed. In the review, we also discuss communications between glioma stem cells and astrocytes. Co-cultures of glioma cells and astrocytes are used for studying anti-glioma treatment approaches. We also enumerate surgical, chemotherapeutic, and radiotherapeutic methods assessed in co-culture experiments. In conclusion, we underline collisions in the field and point out the role of the co-cultures for neurobiological studies.

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Fig. 1

Abbreviations

Asn:

Asparagine

ATM:

Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated

DMSO:

Dimethyl sulfoxide

EEAT2:

Excitatory amino acid transporter 2

EGF:

Epidermal growth factor

FGF:

Fibroblast growth factor

GLAST:

Glutamate and aspartate transporter

Gln:

Glutamine

Glu:

Glutamate

GLT-1:

Glutamate transporter

GSC:

Glioma stem-like cell

GFAP:

Glial fibrillary acidic protein

Cx43:

Connexin 43

GRO:

Growth-related oncogene

JAK:

Janus kinase

IL:

Interleukin

MCP:

Monocyte chemoattractant protein

MMP:

Matrix metalloproteinase

mRNA:

Matrix RNA

miRNA, miR:

MicroRNA

MSC:

Mesenchymal stem cells

NRP-2:

Neuropilin 2

PCR:

Polymerase chain reaction

PI:

Propidium iodide

siRNA:

Small interfering RNA

SPARC:

Secreted protein acidic and rich and cysteine

STAT:

Signal transducer and activator

TGF:

Transforming growth factor

TIMP:

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase

TRAIL:

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand

VEGF:

Vascular endothelial growth factor

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Acknowledgements

The work was carried out within the Grant Number 17-00-00161 issued by the Russian Foundation For Basic Research.

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IVC: source selection, analytical discussion, manuscript composing; OIG: analytical discussion; DAC and NFG: scientific editing.

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Correspondence to Ivan V. Chekhonin.

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I.V. Chekhonin declares that he has financial relationship with the funding organization. O.I. Gurina declares that she has financial relationship with the funding organization. D.A. Chistiakov declares that he has no potential conflict of interest. N.F. Grinenko declares that she has no potential conflict of interest.

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Chekhonin, I.V., Chistiakov, D.A., Grinenko, N.F. et al. Glioma Cell and Astrocyte Co-cultures As a Model to Study Tumor–Tissue Interactions: A Review of Methods. Cell Mol Neurobiol 38, 1179–1195 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10571-018-0588-3

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Keywords

  • Astrocytes
  • Glioma
  • Co-culture
  • Periglioma zone
  • Tumorigenesis