Two novel derivatives of carnosine—(S)-trolox-l-carnosine (STC) and (R)-trolox-l-carnosine (RTC) are characterized in terms of their antioxidant and membrane-stabilizing activities as well as their resistance to serum carnosinase. STC and RTC were synthesized by N-acylation of l-carnosine with (S)- and (R)-trolox, respectively. STC and RTC were found to react more efficiently with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and protect serum lipoproteins from Fe2+-induced oxidation more successfully than carnosine and trolox. At the same time, STC, RTC and trolox suppressed oxidative hemolysis of red blood cells (RBC) less efficiently than carnosine taken in the same concentration. When oxidative stress was induced in suspension of cerebellum granule cells by their incubation with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), both STC and RTC more efficiently decreased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than carnosine and trolox. Both STC and RTC were resistant toward hydrolytic degradation by human serum carnosinase. STC and RTC were concluded to demonstrate higher antioxidant capacity and better ability to prevent cerebellar neurons from ROS accumulation than their precursors, carnosine and trolox.
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This work was supported by Hamari Chemicals Ltd and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants no. 07-04-00557 and 09-04-00507).
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Stvolinsky, S.L., Bulygina, E.R., Fedorova, T.N. et al. Biological Activity of Novel Synthetic Derivatives of Carnosine. Cell Mol Neurobiol 30, 395–404 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10571-009-9462-7
- Carnosine derivatives
- Oxidative stress
- Brain neurons
- Antioxidant defense