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Semi-interpenetrated polymer networks based on modified cellulose and starch as gel polymer electrolytes for high performance lithium ion batteries

Abstract

Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) is one of the most famous polymer electrolytes; however, its low conductivity and capacity have prevented its commercial applications. This study utilizes carboxymethyl starch (CMS) and oxidized carboxymethyl cellulose (OCMC) natural polymers with a high potential to dissolve lithium ions (Li+) in to help PEO ionic conductivity. The semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) consist of crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) with poly(ethylene glycol) diallyl (PEGDA) and free CMS/OCMC chains. Effect of increasing the amount of natural polymer on the electrochemical properties of semi-IPNs is investigated. Semi-IPN CMS50% and semi-IPN OCMC50% deliver excellent results such as high conductivity (in order 10–2 Scm−1) at room temperature, electrochemical stability window higher than 4.5 V, high Li+ transfer number, high discharge capacities (191 and 203 mAh g–1 with capacity retention of 85 and 88.5% after 100 cycles at 0.2 C, respectively), and stable cyclic behavior.

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The raw/processed data required to reproduce these findings cannot be shared at this time as the data also form part of an ongoing study.

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Acknowledgements

This work is based upon research funded by Iran National Science Foundation (INSF) under project No. 99003725 and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) under Project No. 20-53-56069.

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SH Methodology, Validation, Formal Analysis, Investigation, Writing – Original Draft, Visualization. MH Validation, Resources, Investigation, Writing – Original Draft, Visualization. ED Methodology, Validation, Formal Analysis. MSK Validation, Resources, Visualization, Writing – Review & Editing, Supervision, Funding Acquisition. SNE Validation, Resources, Visualization, Writing – Review & Editing, Supervision, Funding Acquisition. HRM Writing – Review & Editing, Visualization.

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Correspondence to Mehdi Salami-Kalajahi.

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10570_2022_4468_MOESM1_ESM.docx

Supplementary file1 Materials; Instrumental Analysis; 1H NMR spectra; Electrolyte uptake results; FE-SEM images of GPEs; EIS results (DOCX 2303 KB)

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Hadad, S., Hamrahjoo, M., Dehghani, E. et al. Semi-interpenetrated polymer networks based on modified cellulose and starch as gel polymer electrolytes for high performance lithium ion batteries. Cellulose 29, 3423–3437 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-022-04468-y

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-022-04468-y

Keywords

  • Gel polymer electrolyte (GPE)
  • Starch
  • Cellulose
  • Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks
  • Lithium ion battery