Skip to main content

Surface energy properties of lignin particles studied by inverse gas chromatography and interfacial adhesion in polyester composites with electromagnetic transparency


We introduce a simple spray drying method for the scaleup production of spherical organic (lignin) particles with sizes between 0.85 and 1.57 µm. We assess the surface energy of the lignin particles by inverse gas chromatography to reveal their role in composites synthesized with unsaturated polyester. Such nanocomposites are shown to be transparent to electromagnetic irradiation (millimeter wave bands). The permittivity and tanδ of the composite material reached values 3.01 and 0.01 at 28 GHz with 10% lignin content. Vinyl groups were introduced on the surface of the particles to achieve enhanced interfacial adhesion, and resulted in a reduced relative permittivity (2.75). Together with wave interactions, the mechanical and thermal properties of the composites are put in perspective, opening new opportunities in the development of bio-based devices for 5G high-speed communication.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7


Download references


The authors acknowledge funding support by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP 1 9 K 2 3 6 8 8 and 2 1 K 0 5 1 5 6 (MA). OJR also acknowledges supported by the Canada Excellence Research Chair initiative, the European Research Council under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (ERC Advanced Grant No. 788489, “BioElCell”), and the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI). The authors are thankful to Ms. Kiyoko Kawashima for operating the EDX in the Collaborative Research Center, Meisei University and we are gratefully acknowledged Prof. Tetsuo Kondo, Kyusyu University for continuous discussions. We also thank Mr. Yutaka Igarashi CEO, Kazu-technica, Drs. Tatsuya Sakurai and Masashi Koyama, Meisei Univeristy for discussions.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mariko Ago.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.

Human or animal rights

This article does not contain any studies involving either animals or human participants performed by any of the authors.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 776 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Suzuki, M., Kondor, A., Sakuraba, Y. et al. Surface energy properties of lignin particles studied by inverse gas chromatography and interfacial adhesion in polyester composites with electromagnetic transparency. Cellulose 29, 2961–2973 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Lignin particles
  • Aerosol flow
  • Dielectric properties
  • Inverse gas chromatography
  • Surface energy
  • Electromagnetic transparency