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Eco-friendly dyeing and finishing of organic cotton fabric using natural dye (gardenia yellow) reduced-stabilized nanosilver: full factorial design


Traditional coloration and functionalization of textiles are highly energy-consuming, time ineffective, and require many chemicals. To overcome the drawbacks, cost-effective and eco-friendly natural dyeing and finishing have become an urgent demand. Herein, gardenia yellow, a natural dye, is extracted from Gardeniae fructus seeds and used for the coloration of organic cotton fabrics (OCFs). In addition, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in-situ on the surface of the OCFs, where gardenia yellow serves as a reducing and stabilizing agent. Optimization of the process parameters (AgNO3 conc., gardenia yellow conc., solution pH, and reaction time) for the yield of AgNPs and subsequent fixation of nanoparticles on the OCFs surface were controlled by Taguchi design of experiments. All parameters were tested in a specified range at four levels on the color strength (K/S) and color difference (ΔE) value. Structural characterization of optimized samples revealed that the AgNPs are nanometer size, spherical shapes, evenly dispersed, and firmly attached to the fiber surfaces by molecular force or double networking capabilities of plant phytochemicals. Color properties demonstrate an even shade due to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of AgNPs with brilliant color strength. Functional properties exposed that the in-situ synthesis of AgNPs significantly enhanced the UV resistance and antibacterial activity (against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) of the OCFs. Overall, this technique of OCF coloration and functionalization by avoiding traditional chemicals including mordants, binders, crosslinkers, finishing, or coating agents offers the desired efficiency and safe product for practical application.

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The authors thank the kind support of this work from Key Laboratory of Biomass Fibers & Eco-Dyeing and Finishing, Hubei Province (STRZ2020001) and Hubei Intellectual Property Office (2019044). The authors also thank Dr. S M Fijul Kabir (Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science; Wilson College of Textiles, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8301, USA.) for his kind assistance in revision.

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Correspondence to Sakil Mahmud or Huihong Liu.

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Jiang, H., Guo, R., Mia, R. et al. Eco-friendly dyeing and finishing of organic cotton fabric using natural dye (gardenia yellow) reduced-stabilized nanosilver: full factorial design. Cellulose 29, 2663–2679 (2022).

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  • Natural dyes
  • Gardenia yellow
  • Silver nanoparticles
  • Textiles
  • Taguchi design of experiment