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Adsorption, kinetics, and thermodynamic studies of cacao husk extracts in waterless sustainable dyeing of cotton fabric


Natural dyes exhibit a low dye uptake when cellulosic fiber dyeing is carried out using a conventional water bath dyeing process. In this research, cotton fabric was exhaust dyed in a microemulsion dyebath containing cacao husk extracts dye and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) to achieve higher dye exhaustion percentage on cotton fiber, which is an environmentally beneficial dyeing process. The adsorption behavior of cacao husk extract dye in a D5 microemulsion system was investigated under conditions of varied dye mass (1–8% o.w.f), dyeing time (5–500 min), and dyeing temperatures (333–373 K). Kinetic modelling of cacao husk extracts dye/D5 adsorption on cotton fiber was studied by fitting experimental data to pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetics, and the intraparticle diffusion model. Early results indicated that the kinetic model of adsorption of cacao husk extracts dye on cotton fiber followed the pseudo second-order model. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin–Radushkevich adsorption isotherm models were employed to analyze the adsorption isotherms, and the results showed that the adsorption process fit well with the Langmuir model compared to the Freundlich isotherm. The mean adsorption energy from the Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm model implied that adsorption of the cacao husk extracts onto cotton was accompanied with a physical process. The values of standard enthalpy (ΔH° > 0), standard entropy (ΔS° > 0), and Gibbs free energy (ΔG° < 0) strongly reflected that the adsorption of the cacao husk extracts onto cotton was thermodynamically favourable and feasible. Thus, waterless dyeing of cotton fabric using a natural dye/D5 system explores a sustainable dyeing technology with higher dye exhaustion percentage.

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Availability of data and material

The datasets generated during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request (Prof. Yingjie Cai).

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No code was attempted or used during the current manuscript.


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This work was financially supported by the China National Textile & Apparel Council (2013“Textile Vision” Applied Basic Research, 2013 − 153), and Hubei Province Science and Technology Support Program (Grant No. 2013BAA043).

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Conceptualization: YC, XY; Methodology: Md.YH, WZ, Md.NP; Formal analysis and investigation: Md.YH, WZ, Md.NP; Writing - original draft preparation: Md.YH, WZ, Md.NP, SS; Writing - review and editing: MMH, Md.IUlH, VN; Funding acquisition: YC, XY; Supervision: YC, XY.

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Correspondence to Xiaojun Yang or Yingjie Cai.

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This manuscript does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Hossain, M.Y., Zhu, W., Pervez, M.N. et al. Adsorption, kinetics, and thermodynamic studies of cacao husk extracts in waterless sustainable dyeing of cotton fabric. Cellulose 28, 2521–2536 (2021).

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