Boluses characterize materials with an electromagnetic radiation attenuation coefficient similar to biological tissue and used to restrict the penetration of high energy photons and electrons used in radiotherapy for the treatment of superficial tumors. The development of new materials, mainly from sustainable biotechnological routes, will contribute to increase efficiency and expand the use of these technologies. The objective of this research was to develop the “proof of concept” regarding the use of the bacterial nanocellulose membrane (BNCm) as a bolus. For this purpose, BNCm were produced, purified and subjected to the physical–chemical characterization. The radiological density (RD) and radiation attenuation potential (RAP) of the BNCm were established and compared to a commercial bolus (CB). The moldability of BNCm was established and compared to the virtual bolus of dosimetric planning. The physical–chemical analysis demonstrated the constitution of a pure, highly hydrated, homogeneous and nanostructured network of cellulose fibers. BNCm showed superiority in relation to RD and similar RAP values when compared to CB. Moldability analysis showed a profile identical to a virtual bolus. The results validate the concept of using BNCm as a highly efficient biotechnological device, aligned with the idea of sustainability, as a bolus for use in radiotherapy.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Barud HS, Regiani T, Marques RFC, Lustri WR, Messaddeq Y, Ribeiro SJL (2011) Antimicrobial bacterial cellulose-silver nanoparticles composite membranes. J Nanomater 2011:1–8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/721631
Barud HS, De Araújo Júnior AM, Saska S, Mestieri LB, Campos JADB, Freitas RM, Ferreira NU, Nascimento AP, Miguel FG, Vaz MMOLL, Barizon EA, Oliveira FM, Gaspar AMM, Ribeiro SJL, Berretta AA (2013) Antimicrobial Brazilian propolis (EPP-AF) containing biocellulose membranes as promising biomaterial for skin wound healing. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2013:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/703024
Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A (2018) Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA A Cancer J Clin 68:394–424. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21492
Butchosa N, Brown C, Larsson PT, Berglund LA, Bulone V, Zhou Q (2013) Nanocomposites of bacterial cellulose nanofibers and chitin nanocrystals: Fabrication, characterization and bactericidal activity. Green chem 15(12):3404–3413. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3gc41700j
Chummun S, McLean NR (2017) The management of malignant skin cancers. Surgery (United Kingdom) 35:519–524. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mpsur.2017.06.013
Craythorne E, Al-Niami F (2017) Skin cancer. Medicine (United Kingdom) 45:431–434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2017.04.003
de Oliveira Barud HG, Barud HDS, Cavicchioli M, Amaral TS, Oliveira Junior OB, Santos DM, Petersen ALOA, Celes F, Borges VM, Oliveira CI, Oliveira PF, Furtado RA, Tavares DC, Ribeiro SJL (2015) Preparation and characterization of a bacterial cellulose/silk fibroin sponge scaffold for tissue regeneration. Carbohydr Polym 128:41–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.04.007
de Oliveira Barud HG, da Silva RR, da Silva BH, Tercjak A, Gutierrez J, Lustri WR, de Oliveira Junior OB, Ribeiro SJL (2016) A multipurpose natural and renewable polymer in medical applications: bacterial cellulose. Carbohydr Polym 153:406–420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.07.059
De Salvi DTB, Barud HS, Caiut JMA, Messaddeq Y, Ribeiro SJL (2012) Self-supported bacterial cellulose/boehmite organic–inorganic hybrid films. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 63:211–218. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10971-012-2678-x
Dos Santos RAC, Berretta AA, Barud HS, Ribeiro SJL, González-Garcia LN, Zucchi TD, Goldman GH, Riaño-Pachón DM (2014) Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus Strain AF1, a High Producer of Cellulose. Isol Kombucha Tea 2:e00731-e814. https://doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00731-14
Fujimoto K, Shiinoki T, Yuasa Y, Hanazawa H, Shibuya K (2017) Efficacy of patient-specific bolus created using three-dimensional printing technique in photon radiotherapy. Phys Med 38:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2017.04.023
Islam S, Mahmoud KA, Sayyed MI, Alim B, Rahman MdM, Mollah AS (2019) Study on the radiation attenuation properties of locally available bees-wax as a tissue equivalent bolus material in radiotherapy. Radiat Phys Chem 172:108559. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2019.108559
Marins JA, Soares BG, Dahmouch K, Ribeiro SJL, Barud H, Bonemer D (2011) Structure and properties of conducting bacterial cellulose-polyaniline nanocomposites. Cellulose 18:1285–1294. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-011-9565-4
Martins D, de Carvalho FD, Gama M, Dourado F (2020) Dry bacterial cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose formulations with interfacial-activ performance: processing conditions and redispersion. Cellulose. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-020-03211-9
Mierzwa ML (2019) Radiotherapy for Skin Cancers of the Face, Head, and Neck. Fac Plast Surg Clin North Am 27:131–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsc.2018.08.005
Pang M, Huang Y, Meng F, Zhuang Y, Liu H, Du M, Ma Q, Wang Q, Chen Z, Chen L, Cai T, Cai Y (2019) Application of bacterial cellulose in skin and bone tissue engineering. Eur Polym J 122:109365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2019.109365
Tanskul S, Amornthatree K, Jaturonlak N (2013) A new cellulose-producing bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. MI 2: screening and optimization of culture conditions. Carb Pol 92:421–428. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.09.017
Vyas V, Palmer L, Mudge R, Jiang R, Fleck A, Schaly B, Osei E, Charland P (2013) On bolus for megavoltage photon and electron radiation therapy. Med Dosim 38:268–273. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meddos.2013.02.007
We thank the company Senven Biotechnology for supplying the inputs for the production of nanocellulose membranes and the Radiology Center of Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia da Araraquara for carrying out the computed tomography analyzes. The authors also thank Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico—CNPq, São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), and TA Instruments Brasil.
The authors thank Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico—CNPq [grant number; 407822/2018–6; INCT-INFO] and São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) [CEPID–13/ 07276–1 and 2018/25512–8].
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Chiozzini, G.C., Mendes, G.P., Vanni, F.P. et al. Bacterial nanocellulose membrane as bolus in radiotherapy: "proof of concept". Cellulose (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-020-03579-8
- Bacterial nanocellulose
- Medical biotechnology
- Superficial tumors