Facile flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric with hydrated sodium metaborate

Abstract

Flame retardant (FR) cotton fabric was facilely prepared using hydrated sodium metaborate (SMB) crystalized in situ in the interstices and on the surface of cotton fabric via one-pot impregnation approach, and the thermal, FR and mechanical properties were investigated. TGA results showed that SMB treatment improved the thermal stability of cotton fabric and enhanced the char yield. The treated cotton also had an LOI value of 28.5% with an afterglow time of less than 1 s in the UL-94 test (V-0). Considerable reductions in peak heat release rate (PHRR ~ 91.8%), total heat release (THR ~ 47.2%), peak carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide produced (PCOP ~ 28.6, PCO2P ~ 85.5%) were obtained. The postburn residues examined by SEM and Raman spectroscopy revealed a preserved fabric structure with high graphite content. SMB treated cotton fabrics demonstrated negligible changes in the tensile strength and the elongation at break. The result demonstrates SMB as an effective flame-retardant for cotton fabrics.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. Abou-Okeil A, El-Sawy SM, Abdel-Mohdy FA (2013) Flame retardant cotton fabrics treated with organophosphorus polymer. Carbohydr Polym 92:2293–2298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.12.008

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Aenishänslin R, Guth C, Hofmann P, Maeder A, Nachbur H (1969) A new chemical approach to durable flame-retardant cotton fabrics. Text Res J 39:375–381

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Alongi J, Malucelli G (2015) Cotton flame retardancy: state of the art and future perspectives RSC. Advances 5:24239–24263

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Alongi J, Ciobanu M, Malucelli G (2012) Thermal stability, flame retardancy and mechanical properties of cotton fabrics treated with inorganic coatings synthesized through sol–gel processes. Carbohydr Polym 87:2093–2099

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Alongi J, Carosio F, Malucelli G (2014) Current emerging techniques to impart flame retardancy to fabrics: an overview. Polym Degrad Stab 106:138–149

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Angeli F, Villain O, Schuller S, Charpentier T, de Ligny D, Bressel L, Wondraczek L (2012) Effect of temperature and thermal history on borosilicate glass structure. Phys Rev B 85:054110

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Babrauskas V, Peacock RD (1992) Heat release rate: the single most important variable in fire hazard. Fire Saf J 18:255–272

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Bashar MM, Khan MA (2013) An overview on surface modification of cotton fiber for apparel use. J Polym Environ 21:181–190

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Bayer EA, Lamed R (1992) The cellulose paradox: pollutant par excellence and/or a reclaimable natural resource? Biodegradation 3:171–188

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Brillard A, Habermacher D, Brilhac J-F (2017) Thermal degradations of used cotton fabrics and of cellulose: kinetic and heat transfer modeling. Cellulose 24:1579–1595

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Chan SY et al (2018) A novel boron–nitrogen intumescent flame retardant coating on cotton with improved washing durability. Cellulose 25:843–857

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Chang S, Slopek RP, Condon B, Grunlan JC (2014) Surface coating for flame-retardant behavior of cotton fabric using a continuous layer-by-layer process. Ind Eng Chem Res 53:3805–3812. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie403992x

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Chehna AB, Laidlaw A, Ricard LB, Varley AR (2013) Colorfastness to laundering: accelerated (test method 61), in the AATCC Technical Manual. NC, USA. pp 108–112

  14. Chen S, Li X, Li Y, Sun J (2015) Intumescent flame-retardant and self-healing superhydrophobic coatings on cotton fabric. ACS Nano 9:4070–4076

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. El-Shafei A, ElShemy M, Abou-Okeil A (2015) Eco-friendly finishing agent for cotton fabrics to improve flame retardant and antibacterial properties. Carbohydr Polym 118:83–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.11.007

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Feng J et al (2017) Enhanced thermal stabilities and char yields of carbon fibers reinforced boron containing novolac phenolic resins composites. J Polym Res 24:176

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Gaan S, Sun G (2007) Effect of phosphorus flame retardants on thermo-oxidative decomposition of cotton. Polym Degrad Stab 92:968–974

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Gann RG, Babrauskas V, Peacock RD, Hall JR (1994) Fire conditions for smoke toxicity measurement. Fire Mater 18:193–199

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Hirschler MM (2015) Flame retardants and heat release: review of traditional studies on products and on groups of polymers. Fire Mater 39:207–231

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Horrocks A, Kandola BK, Davies P, Zhang S, Padbury S (2005) Developments in flame retardant textiles—a review. Polym Degrad Stab 88:3–12

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Huang G, Liang H, Wang X, Gao J (2012) Poly (acrylic acid)/clay thin films assembled by layer-by-layer deposition for improving the flame retardancy properties of cotton. Ind Eng Chem Res 51:12299–12309

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Kaplan DL (1998) Introduction to biopolymers from renewable resources. In: Biopolymers from renewable resources. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–29

  23. Li Y-C et al (2010) Flame retardant behavior of polyelectrolyte–clay thin film assemblies on cotton fabric. ACS Nano 4:3325–3337

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Lo C-F, Karan K, Davis BR (2007) Kinetic studies of reaction between sodium borohydride and methanol, water, and their mixtures. Ind Eng Chem Res 46:5478–5484. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie0608861

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Lu S-Y, Hamerton I (2002) Recent developments in the chemistry of halogen-free flame retardant polymers. Prog Polym Sci 27:1661–1712

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Martin C, Hunt B, Ebdon J, Ronda J, Cadiz V (2006a) Synthesis, crosslinking and flame retardance of polymers of boron-containing difunctional styrenic monomers. React Funct Polym 66:1047–1054

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Martin C, Ronda J, Cadiz V (2006b) Boron-containing novolac resins as flame retardant materials. Polym Degrad Stab 91:747–754

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Nine MJ, Tran DN, ElMekawy A, Losic D (2017a) Interlayer growth of borates for highly adhesive graphene coatings with enhanced abrasion resistance, fire-retardant and antibacterial ability. Carbon 117:252–262

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Nine MJ, Tran DN, Tung TT, Kabiri S, Losic D (2017b) Graphene-borate as an efficient fire retardant for cellulosic materials with multiple and synergetic modes of action. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:10160–10168

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Paul R (2014) Functional finishes for textiles: improving comfort, performance and protection. Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge, UK, pp 1–14

    Google Scholar 

  31. Pişkin MB, Figen AK, Ergüven H (2013) Investigation of the reaction mechanism and kinetics of production of anhydrous sodium metaborate (NaBO2) by a solid-state reaction. Res Chem Intermed 39:569–583. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11164-012-0580-3

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Ravandi SH, Valizadeh M (2011) Properties of fibers and fabrics that contribute to human comfort. In: Improving comfort in clothing. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 61–78

  33. Sabir T (2017) Fibers used for high-performance apparel. In: High-performance apparel. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 7–32

  34. Sasaki K, Tenjimbayashi M, Manabe K, Shiratori S (2015) Asymmetric superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic cotton fabrics designed by spraying polymer and nanoparticles. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:651–659

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Tawiah B, Yu B, Cheung WY, Chan SY, Yang W, Fei B (2018) Synthesis and application of synergistic azo-boron-BPA/polydopamine as efficient flame retardant for poly (lactic acid). Polym Degrad Stab 152:64–74

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Thakur VK, Thakur MK (2014) Processing and characterization of natural cellulose fibers/thermoset polymer composites. Carbohydr Polym 109:102–117

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Wang Y-Z (2008) Halogen-free flame retardants. In: Advances in fire retardant materials. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 67–94

  38. Wu W, Yang CQ (2007) Comparison of different reactive organophosphorus flame retardant agents for cotton. Part II: fabric flame resistant performance and physical properties. Polym Degrad Stab 92:363–369

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Xie K, Gao A, Zhang Y (2013) Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen. Carbohydr Polym 98:706–710

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Yang Z, Fei B, Wang X, Xin JH (2012a) A novel halogen-free and formaldehyde-free flame retardant for cotton fabrics. Fire Mater 36:31–39

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Yang Z, Wang X, Lei D, Fei B, Xin JH (2012b) A durable flame retardant for cellulosic fabrics. Polym Degrad Stab 97:2467–2472

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Zhang Q-H, Gu J, Chen G-Q, Xing T-L (2016) Durable flame retardant finish for silk fabric using boron hybrid silica sol. Appl Surf Sci 387:446–453

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Zhang J, Horton J, Gao XH (2017) Methods of conferring fire retardancy to wood and fire-retardant wood products. Google Patents

  44. Zhu P, Sui S, Wang B, Sun K, Sun G (2004) A study of pyrolysis and pyrolysis products of flame-retardant cotton fabrics by DSC, TGA, and PY–GC–MS. J Anal Appl Pyrol 71:645–655. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2003.09.005

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Zhu S et al (2006) Dissolution of cellulose with ionic liquids and its application: a mini-review. Green Chem 8:325–327

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We are grateful for the funding support of GRF project 15208015.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bin Fei.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing financial interest for this research work.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 966 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tawiah, B., Yu, B., Yang, W. et al. Facile flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric with hydrated sodium metaborate. Cellulose 26, 4629–4640 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-019-02371-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cotton fabric
  • Flame retardant
  • Cone calorimeter
  • Sodium metaborate
  • Mechanical properties