, Volume 26, Issue 6, pp 3859–3872 | Cite as

Laboratory filter paper from superhydrophobic to quasi-superamphiphobicity: facile fabrication, simplified patterning and smart application

  • Kun-Feng Liu
  • Pan-Pan Li
  • Yu-Ping ZhangEmail author
  • Peng-Fei Liu
  • Cheng-Xing Cui
  • Ji-Chao Wang
  • Xiang-Jun Li
  • Ling-Bo Qu
Original Research


Superamphiphobic surfaces generally need a specific combination of low surface energy and re-entrant surface structure. Herein, we have created a hexane suspension of trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-tridecafluoro-n-octyl) silane, tetraethyl orthosilicate, silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles and modify a series of filter papers by one-step immersion in 10 min. Superhydrophobic and quasi-superoleophobic properties are obtained for the optimal filter papers, which repel both of polar and non-polar liquids such as water, glycerol, 1,4-butanediol, soybean oil and 1-octadecene with the contact angles of 168°, 158°, 154°, 145° and 121°, respectively. More importantly, the respective contribution of each component to the superhydrophobic and oleophobical property is explicated through a series of comparative experiments based on the optimal suspension prescription. The wettability transformation from quasi-superamphiphobicity to superhydrophilicity after UV irradiation is evaluated and illustrated. What’s more, the patterned paper is successfully used for the colorimetric detection of glucose using a simple paper-based analytical device. A linear correlation between gray intensity (GI) and glucose concentration (C), GI = − 10.7C + 161.8 is achieved with a correlation coefficient of 0.991, indicating the potential for semi-quantitative analysis of real sample in the field.


Superamphiphobic surface Filter paper Titanium dioxide Glucose 



Financial support from the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 51,802,082), and the Landmark Innovation Project of Henan Institute of Science and Technology (No. 2015BZ02), and the ‘‘Funds for Tai Hang Scholar’’ of HIST, and the Science and Technology Project of Henan Province (No. 142102210047) and the Scientific Innovation Team in Henan Province (No. C20150020).

Supplementary material

10570_2019_2338_MOESM1_ESM.docx (543 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 542 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (MP4 14102 kb)

Supplementary material 3 (MP4 19206 kb)

Supplementary material 4 (MP4 64349 kb)


  1. Andreas G, FlorianL Markus B, Zhang K (2014) Thermo-responsive superhydrophobic paper using nanostructured cellulose stearoyl ester. Cellulose 21:357–366. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arbatan T, Zhang L, Fang X, Shen W (2012) Cellulose nanofibers as binder for fabrication of superhydrophobic paper. Chem Eng J 210:74–79. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baidya A, Ganayee MA, Jakka RS, Tam KC, Das SK, Ras RHA, Pradeep T (2017) Organic solvent-free fabrication of durable and multifunctional superhydrophobic paper from waterborne fluorinated cellulose nanofiber building blocks. ACS Nano 11:11091–11099. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cai L, Wang Y, Wu Y, Xu C, Zhong M, Lai H, Huang J (2014a) Fabrication of a microfluidic paper-based analytical device by silanization of filter cellulose using a paper mask for glucose assay. Analyst 139:4593–4598. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cai L, Xu C, Lin S, Luo J, Wu M, Yang F (2014b) A simple paper-based sensor fabricated by selective wet etching of silanized filter paper using a paper mask. Biomicrofluidics 8:056504–056508. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Charreau H, Foresti ML, Vázquez A (2013) Nanocellulose patents trends: a comprehensive review on patents on cellulose nanocrystals, microfibrillated and bacterial cellulose. Recent Pat Nanotechnol 7:56–80. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen F, Song J, Lu Y, Huang S, Liu X, Sun J, Carmalt C, Parkin I, Xu W (2015) Creating robust superamphiphobic coatings for both hard and soft materials. J Mater Chem A 3:20999–21008. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen L, Guo Z, Liu W (2017) Outmatching superhydrophobicity: bio-inspired re-entrant curvature for mighty superamphiphobicity in air. J Mater Chem A 5:14480–14507. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Darmanin T, Guittard F (2015) Highly polar linkers (urea, carbamate, thiocarbamate) for superoleophobic/superhydrophobic or oleophobic/hydrophilic properties. Adv Mater Interfaces 2:1500081–1500088. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fukada K, Kawamura N, Kawamura N, Shiratori S (2017) Trace material capture by controlled liquid droplets on a superhydrophobic/hydrophilic surface. Anal Chem 89:10391–10396. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Glavan AC, Martinez RV, Subramaniam AB, Yoon HJ, Nunes RMD, Lange H, Thuo MM, Whitesides GM (2014) Omniphobic “RF paper” produced by silanization of paper with fluoroalkyltrichlorosilanes. Adv Funct Mater 24(1):60–70. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Golovin K, Kobaku SPR, Lee DH, DiLoreto ET, Mabry JM, Tuteja A (2016) Designing durable icephobicsurfaces. Sci Adv 2:e1501496–e1501496. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. He Q, Ma C, Hu X, Chen H (2013) Method for fabrication of paper based microfluidic devices by alkylsilane self-assembling and uv/o3-patterning. Anal Chem 85:1327–1331. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hizal F, Rungraeng N, Lee J, Jun S, Busscher HJ, van der Mei HC, Choi CH (2017) Nanoengineered superhydrophobic surfaces of aluminum with extremely low bacterial adhesivity. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:12118–12129. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huang L, Chen K, Lin C, Yang R, Gerhardt RA (2011) Fabrication and characterization of superhydrophobic high opacity paper with titanium dioxide nanoparticles. J Mater Sci 46:2600–2605. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jalal UM, Jin GJ, Shim JS (2017) Paper–plastic hybrid microfluidic device for smartphone-based colorimetric analysis of urine. Anal Chem 89:13160–13166. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jiang L, Tang Z, Clinton RM, Breedveld V, Hess DW (2017) Two-step process to create “roll-off” superamphiphobicpaper surfaces. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:9195–9203. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kamarainen T, Arcot LR, Johansson LS, Campbell J, Tammelin T, Franssila S, Laine J, Rojas OJ (2016) UV-ozone patterning of micro-nano fibrillated cellulose (MNFC) with alkylsilane self-assembled monolayers. Cellulose 23:1847–1857. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li D, Guo Z (2017) Versatile superamphiphobic cotton fabrics fabricated by coating with SiO2/FOTS. Appl Surf Sci 426:271–278. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li S, Zhang S, Wang X (2008) Fabrication of superhydrophobic cellulose-based materials through a solution-immersion process. Langmuir 24:5585–5590. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li C, Boban M, Snyder SA, Kobaku SPR, Kwon G, Mehta G, Tuteja A (2016) Paper-based surfaces with extreme wettabilities for novel, open-channel microfluidic devices. Adv Funct Mater 26:6121–6131. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lu Y, Sathasivam S, Song J, Crick CR, Carmalt CJ, Parkin IP (2015) Robust self-cleaning surfaces that function when exposed to either air or oil. Science 347:1132–1135. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ly B, Belgacem MN, Bras J, Brochier SMC (2010) Grafting of cellulose by fluorine-bearing silane coupling agents. Mat Sci Eng C 30:343–347. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Oh MJ, Lee SY, Paik KH (2011) Preparation of hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers on paper surface with silanes. J Ind Eng Chem 17:149–153. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Phanthong P, Guan G, Karnjanakom S, Hao X, Kusakabe K, Abudula A (2016) Amphiphobicnanocellulose-modified paper: fabrication and evaluation. RSC Adv 6:13328–13334. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Qing Y, Hu C, Yang C, An K, Tang F, Tan Ju, Liu C (2017) Rough structure of electrodeposition as a template for an ultrarobustself-cleaning surface. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:16571–16580. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rollings DAE, Veinot JGC (2008) Polysiloxane nanofibers via surface initiated polymerization of vapor phase reagents: a mechanism of formation and variable wettability of fiber bearing substrates. Langmuir 24:13653–13662. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schlaich C, CamachoLC YuL, Achazi K, Wei Qiang, Haag R (2016) Surface-independent hierarchical coatings with superamphiphobicproperties. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:29117–29127. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. She Z, Li Q, Wang Z, Li L, Chen F, Zhou J (2013) Researching the fabrication of anticorrosion superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy and its mechanical stability and durability. Chem Eng J 228:415–424. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shi Y, Liu H, Zhu X, Zhu J, Zuo Y, Yang Y, Jiang F, Sun C, Zhao W (2018) Optofluidic differential colorimetry for rapid nitrite determination. Lab Chip 18:2994–3002. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Song J, Rojas O (2013) Approaching super-hydrophobicity from cellulosic materials: a review. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 28:216–238. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Songok J, Toivakka M (2016) Controlling capillary-driven surface flow on a paper-based microfluidic channel. Microfluid Nanofluid 20:63–72. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tang X, Shen C, Zhu W, Zhang S, Xu Y, Yang Y, Gao M, Dong F (2017) A facile procedure to modify filter paper for oil–water separation. RSC Adv 7:30495–30499. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang H, Fang J, Cheng T, Ding J, Qu L, Dai L, Wang X, Lin T (2008) One-step coating of fluoro-containing silica nanoparticles for universal generation of surface superhydrophobicity. Chem Commun 7:877–879. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang S, Liu K, Yao X, Lei J (2015) Bioinspired surfaces with superwettability: new insight on theory, design, and applications. Chem Rev 115:8230–8293. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wen M, Zhong J, Zhao S, Bu T, Guo L, Ku Z, Peng Y, Huang F, Cheng Y, Zhang Q (2017) Robust transparent superamphiphobic coatings on non-fabric flat substrates with inorganic adhesive titania bonded silica. J Mater Chem A 5:8352–8359. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wolfberger A, Kargl R, Griesser T, Spirk S (2014) Photoregeneration of trimethylsilyl cellulose as a tool for microstructuring ultrathin cellulose supports. Molecules 19:16266–16273. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Xue Z, Liu M, Jiang L (2012) Recent developments in polymeric superoleophobic surfaces. J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 50:1209–1224. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yetisen AK, Akram MS, Lowe CR (2013) Paper-based microfluidic point-of-care diagnostic devices. Lab Chip 13:2210–2251. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yong J, Chen F, Yang Q, HuoJ Hou X (2017) Superoleophobic surfaces. Chem Soc Rev 46:4168–4217. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang L, Kwok H, Li X, Yu H (2017) Superhydrophobic substrates from off-the-shelf laboratory filter paper: simplified preparation, patterning, and assay application. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:39728–39735. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhu Q, Pan Q (2014) Mussel-inspired direct immobilization of nanoparticles and application for oil–water separation. ACS Nano 8:1402–1409. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kun-Feng Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pan-Pan Li
    • 1
  • Yu-Ping Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Peng-Fei Liu
    • 1
  • Cheng-Xing Cui
    • 1
  • Ji-Chao Wang
    • 1
  • Xiang-Jun Li
    • 4
  • Ling-Bo Qu
    • 3
  1. 1.Henan Institute of Science and TechnologyXinxiangChina
  2. 2.Xinyang Agriculture and Forestry UniversityXinyangChina
  3. 3.College of Chemistry and Molecular EngineeringZhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina
  4. 4.School of Chemical SciencesUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations