Advertisement

Cellulose

, Volume 25, Issue 7, pp 3733–3753 | Cite as

Methods to increase the reactivity of dissolving pulp in the viscose rayon production process: a review

  • Hailong Li
  • Sarah Legere
  • Zhibin He
  • Hongjie Zhang
  • Jianguo Li
  • Bo Yang
  • Shaokai Zhang
  • Lili Zhang
  • Linqiang Zheng
  • Yonghao Ni
Review Paper
  • 102 Downloads

Abstract

Cellulose is a green and sustainable feedstock that can be used for manufacturing many bio-based products. Dissolving pulps, the main source of high-purity cellulose, have been extensively used in the production of cellulose-based products. The reactivity of dissolving pulp is a critical property because a high reactivity can decrease the production cost and environmental impact of application processes, in particular for the viscose rayon production. This review discusses the factors which affect the reactivity of dissolving pulp, including raw materials, manufacturing processes, drying and oxidation. Various methods to increase the reactivity of dissolving pulp are discussed, and they include mechanical treatment, enzymatic treatment, caustic extraction, ionic liquid extraction, acid treatment, ozone treatment, thermal degradation, and their combinations. Their advantages and disadvantages are compared and analyzed. Finally, the practical implications of effective methods to improve the reactivity and the future of dissolving pulp are discussed.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Dissolving pulp Reactivity Viscose rayon Enzymatic treatment Caustic extraction Ionic liquid extraction Combination of treatment 

References

  1. Abad S, Santos V, Parajo JC (2001) Totally chlorine-free bleaching of Acetosolv pulps: a clean approach to dissolving pulp manufacture. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 76:1117–1123.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.494 Google Scholar
  2. Alonso DM, Hakim SH, Zhou S et al (2017) Increasing the revenue from lignocellulosic biomass: maximizing feedstock utilization. Sci Adv 3:e1603301.  https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1603301 Google Scholar
  3. Arnoul-Jarriault B, Lachenal D, Chirat C, Heux L (2015) Upgrading softwood bleached kraft pulp to dissolving pulp by cold caustic treatment and acid-hot caustic treatment. Ind Crops Prod 65:565–571.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.09.051 Google Scholar
  4. Atalla RH, Ranua J, Malcolm E (1984) Raman spectroscopic studies of the structure of cellulose: a comparison of kraft and sulfite pulps. Tappi J 67:96–99Google Scholar
  5. Bajpai S (2001) Swelling–deswelling behavior of poly (acrylamide-co-maleic acid) hydrogels. J Appl Polym Sci 80:2782–2789.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1394 Google Scholar
  6. Batalha LAR, Colodette JL, Gomide JL, Barbosa LC, Maltha CR, Gomes FJB (2011) Dissolving pulp production from bamboo. BioResources 7:0640–0651.  https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.7.1.0640-0651 Google Scholar
  7. Bochek A (2003) Effect of hydrogen bonding on cellulose solubility in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents. Russ J Appl Chem 76:1711–1719.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:RJAC.0000018669.88546.56 Google Scholar
  8. Borrega M, Sixta H (2013) Purification of cellulosic pulp by hot water extraction. Cellulose 20:2803–2812.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-013-0086-1 Google Scholar
  9. Borrega M, Concha-Carrasco S, Pranovich A, Sixta H (2017) Hot water treatment of hardwood kraft pulp produces high-purity cellulose and polymeric xylan. Cellulose 24:5133–5145.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-017-1462-z Google Scholar
  10. Bose SK, Barber VA, Alves EF, Kiemle DJ, Stipanovic AJ, Francis RC (2009) An improved method for the hydrolysis of hardwood carbohydrates to monomers. Carbohydr Polym 78:396–401.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2009.04.015 Google Scholar
  11. Campbell AG, Kim W-J, Koch P (2007) Chemical variation in lodgepole pine with sapwood/heartwood, stem height, and variety. Wood Fiber Sci 22:22–30Google Scholar
  12. Chen C, Liu Y, Duan C, Li J, Ma X, Zheng L, Ni Y (2015) Comparison of production technology and characteristics of the dissolving pulps based on AS and PHK processes. China Pulp Pap 34:66–70.  https://doi.org/10.11980/j.issn.0254-508X.2015.12.014 Google Scholar
  13. Chen C, Duan C, Li J, Liu Y, Ma X, Zheng L, Stavik J, Ni Y (2016) Cellulose (dissolving pulp) manufacturing processes and properties: a mini-review. BioResources 11:5553–5564Google Scholar
  14. Chen Q, Miao Q, Cao S, Chen L, Huang L (2017) Study on improving reactivity of bamboo dissolving pulp by acid treatment. J Fujian Agric For Univ 46:351–355.  https://doi.org/10.13323/j.cnki.j.fafu(nat.sci.)2017.03.019 Google Scholar
  15. Cheng D, Yang X, He Z, Ni Y (2016) Potential of cellulose-based materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) separator membranes. J Bioresour Bioprod 1:18–21.  https://doi.org/10.21967/jbb.v1i1.37 Google Scholar
  16. Chow P, Rolfe GL, Bajwa DS (1999) Stem chemical compositions of juvenile Elaeagnus and Alnus species. Can J Bot 77:1398–1400.  https://doi.org/10.1139/b99-071 Google Scholar
  17. Coffey DG, Bell DA, Henderson A (1995) Cellulose and cellulose derivatives. In: Stephen AM (eds) Food polysaccharides and their applications. CRC Press, New York, pp 147–180Google Scholar
  18. Dadi AP, Varanasi S, Schall CA (2006) Enhancement of cellulose saccharification kinetics using an ionic liquid pretreatment step. Biotechnol Bioeng 95:904–910.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.21047 Google Scholar
  19. Dhillon GS, Kaur S (2016) Agro-industrial wastes as feedstock for enzyme production: apply and exploit the emerging and valuable use options of waste biomass. Academic Press, Cambridge, p 157Google Scholar
  20. Dinand E, Vignon M, Chanzy H, Heux L (2002) Mercerization of primary wall cellulose and its implication for the conversion of cellulose I → cellulose II. Cellulose 9:7–18.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015877021688 Google Scholar
  21. Diniz JF, Gil M, Castro J (2004) Hornification—its origin and interpretation in wood pulps. Wood Sci Technol 37:489–494.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00226-003-0216-2 Google Scholar
  22. Divne C et al (1993) Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies on the core proteins of cellobiohydrolase I and endoglucanase I from Trichoderma reesei. J Mol Biol 234:905–907.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jmbi.1993.1640 Google Scholar
  23. Divne C, Stahlberg J, Reinikainen T, Ruohonen L, Pettersson G, Knowles JK (1994) The three-dimensional crystal structure of the catalytic core of cellobiohydrolase I from Trichoderma reesei. Science 265(5171):524–528.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.8036495 Google Scholar
  24. Duan C, Li J, Ma X, Chen C, Liu Y, Stavik J, Ni Y (2015a) Comparison of acid sulfite (AS)- and prehydrolysis kraft (PHK)-based dissolving pulps. Cellulose 22:4017–4026.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-015-0781-1 Google Scholar
  25. Duan C, Long Y, Li J, Ma X, Ni Y (2015b) Changes of cellulose accessibility to cellulase due to fiber hornification and its impact on enzymatic viscosity control of dissolving pulp. Cellulose 22:2729–2736.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-015-0636-9 Google Scholar
  26. Duan C, Verma SK, Li J, Ma X, Ni Y (2016a) Combination of mechanical, alkaline and enzymatic treatments to upgrade paper-grade pulp to dissolving pulp with high reactivity. Bioresour Technol 200:458–463.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.10.067 Google Scholar
  27. Duan C, Verma SK, Li J, Ma X, Ni Y (2016b) Viscosity control and reactivity improvements of cellulose fibers by cellulase treatment. Cellulose 23:269–276.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-015-0822-9 Google Scholar
  28. Duan C, Wang X, Zhang Y, Xu Y, Ni Y (2017) Fractionation and cellulase treatment for enhancing the properties of kraft-based dissolving pulp. Bioresour Technol 224:439–444.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.10.077 Google Scholar
  29. El Seoud OA, Koschella A, Fidale LC, Dorn S, Heinze T (2007) Applications of ionic liquids in carbohydrate chemistry: a window of opportunities. Biomacromolecules 8:2629–2647.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bm070062i Google Scholar
  30. Endean R (1961) The test of the ascidian, Phallusia mammillata. J Cell Sci 3:107–117Google Scholar
  31. Engström A-C, Ek M, Henriksson G (2006) Improved accessibility and reactivity of dissolving pulp for the viscose process: pretreatment with monocomponent endoglucanase. Biomacromolecules 7:2027–2031.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bm0509725 Google Scholar
  32. Fan S, Wen B, Su Z, Zhang Y (2017) The research progress of upgrading paper-grade pulp to dissolving pulp. China Pulp Pap 36:64–68.  https://doi.org/10.11980/j.issn.0254-508X.2017.03.012 Google Scholar
  33. Fatehi P, Xiao H, van de Ven TG (2011) Quantitative analysis of cationic poly (vinyl alcohol) diffusion into the hairy structure of cellulose fiber pores: charge density effect. Langmuir 27:13489–13496.  https://doi.org/10.1021/la203364x Google Scholar
  34. FitzPatrick M, Champagne P, Cunningham MF, Whitney RA (2010) A biorefinery processing perspective: treatment of lignocellulosic materials for the production of value-added products. Bioresour Technol 101:8915–8922.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.06.125 Google Scholar
  35. Fock W (1959) A modified method for determining the reactivity of viscose-grade dissolving pulps. Papier 13:92–95Google Scholar
  36. French AD (2014) Idealized powder diffraction patterns for cellulose polymorphs. Cellulose 21:885–896.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-013-0030-4 Google Scholar
  37. Froschauer C, Hummel M, Laus G, Schottenberger H, Sixta H, Weber HK, Zuckerstätter G (2012) Dialkyl phosphate-related ionic liquids as selective solvents for xylan. Biomacromolecules 13:1973–1980.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bm300582s Google Scholar
  38. Froschauer C, Hummel M, Iakovlev M, Roselli A, Schottenberger H, Sixta H (2013) Separation of hemicellulose and cellulose from wood pulp by means of ionic liquid/cosolvent systems. Biomacromolecules 14:1741–1750.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bm400106h Google Scholar
  39. Fu J, Li X, Gao W, Wang H, Cavaco-Paulo A, Silva C (2012) Bio-processing of bamboo fibres for textile applications: a mini review. Biocatal Biotransform 30:141–153.  https://doi.org/10.3109/10242422.2012.650450 Google Scholar
  40. Gehmayr V, Sixta H (2011) Dissolving pulps from enzyme treated kraft pulps for viscose application. Lenzing Berichte 89:152–160Google Scholar
  41. Gehmayr V, Schild G, Sixta H (2011) A precise study on the feasibility of enzyme treatments of a kraft pulp for viscose application. Cellulose 18:479–491.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-010-9483-x Google Scholar
  42. Gong C, Shi Y, Ni J, Yang X, Liu Y, Tian C (2017) Integration of hemicellulose recovery and cold caustic extraction in upgrading a paper-grade bleached kraft pulp to a dissolving grade. J Bioresour Bioprod 2:20–23.  https://doi.org/10.21967/jbb.v2i1.103 Google Scholar
  43. Grethlein HE (1985) The effect of pore size distribution on the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates. Nat Biotechnol 3:155–160.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt0285-155 Google Scholar
  44. Grönqvist S et al (2014a) Fibre porosity development of dissolving pulp during mechanical and enzymatic processing. Cellulose 21:3667–3676.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-014-0352-x Google Scholar
  45. Grönqvist S et al (2014b) Fibre porosity development of dissolving pulp during mechanical and enzymatic processing. Cellulose 21:3667–3676.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-014-0352-x Google Scholar
  46. Gupta PK, Uniyal V, Naithani S (2013) Polymorphic transformation of cellulose I to cellulose II by alkali pretreatment and urea as an additive. Carbohydr Polym 94:843–849.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.02.012 Google Scholar
  47. Hendriks A, Zeeman G (2009) Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol 100:10–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.05.027 Google Scholar
  48. Henriksson G, Christiernin M, Agnemo R (2005) Monocomponent endoglucanase treatment increases the reactivity of softwood sulphite dissolving pulp. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 32:211–214.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10295-005-0220-7 Google Scholar
  49. Hinck J, Casebier R, Hamilton J (1985) Dissolving pulp manufacture. In: Ingruber OV, Kocurek MJ, Wong A (eds) Pulp and paper manufacture-sulfite science and technology, vol 1. Joint Textbook Committee of the Paper Industry, Tappi, pp 215–243Google Scholar
  50. Huang J, Liu Y, Sun B, Shang Z (2017) Microwave-assisted alkali extraction of bagasse hemicellulose enhanced by an enzymatic pretreatment process. J Bioresour Bioprod 2:105–109.  https://doi.org/10.21967/jbb.v2i3.117 Google Scholar
  51. Hubbe MA, Venditti RA, Rojas OJ (2007) What happens to cellulosic fibers during papermaking and recycling? A review. BioResources 2:739–788Google Scholar
  52. Hutterer C, Kliba G, Punz M, Fackler K, Potthast A (2017) Enzymatic pulp upgrade for producing high-value cellulose out of a Kraft paper pulp. Enzyme Microb Technol 102:67–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2017.03.014 Google Scholar
  53. Iakovlev M, Sixta H, van Heiningen A (2011) SO2-Ethanol-Water (SEW) pulping: II. Kinetics for spruce, beech, and wheat straw. J Wood Chem Technol 31:250–266.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02773813.2010.523162 Google Scholar
  54. Iakovlev M, You X, van Heiningen A, Sixta H (2014) SO2–ethanol–water (SEW) fractionation of spruce: kinetics and conditions for paper and viscose-grade dissolving pulps. RSC Adv. 4:1938–1950.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ra45573d Google Scholar
  55. Ibarra D, Köpcke V, Ek M (2010a) Behavior of different monocomponent endoglucanases on the accessibility and reactivity of dissolving-grade pulps for viscose process. Enzyme Microb Technol 47:355–362.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2010.07.016 Google Scholar
  56. Ibarra D, Köpcke V, Larsson PT, Jääskeläinen A-S, Ek M (2010b) Combination of alkaline and enzymatic treatments as a process for upgrading sisal paper-grade pulp to dissolving-grade pulp. Bioresour Technol 101:7416–7423.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.04.050 Google Scholar
  57. Janzon R, Puls J, Bohn A, Potthast A, Saake B (2008a) Upgrading of paper grade pulps to dissolving pulps by nitren extraction: yields, molecular and supramolecular structures of nitren extracted pulps. Cellulose 15:739.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-008-9224-6 Google Scholar
  58. Janzon R, Saake B, Puls J (2008b) Upgrading of paper-grade pulps to dissolving pulps by nitren extraction: properties of nitren extracted xylans in comparison to NaOH and KOH extracted xylans. Cellulose 15:161.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-007-9154-8 Google Scholar
  59. Ji L, Zhao L (2017) The review and perspective of dissolving pulp market in 2016 to 2018. China Pulp Pap. Ind. 38:58–63Google Scholar
  60. Jonoobi M, Oladi R, Davoudpour Y, Oksman K, Dufresne A, Hamzeh Y, Davoodi R (2015) Different preparation methods and properties of nanostructured cellulose from various natural resources and residues: a review. Cellulose 22:935–969.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-015-0551-0 Google Scholar
  61. Kang G, Zhang Y, Ni Y, van Heiningen AR (1995) Influence of lignins on the degradation of cellulose during ozone treatment. J Wood Chem Technol 15:413–430.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02773819508009518 Google Scholar
  62. Kang X, Kugaa S, Wang L, Wu M, Huang Y (2016) Dissociation of intra/inter-molecular hydrogen bonds of cellulose molecules in the dissolution processes: a mini review. J Bioresour Bioprod 1:58–63.  https://doi.org/10.21967/jbb.v1i2.44 Google Scholar
  63. Kaur P, Bhardwaj NK, Sharma J (2016a) Application of microbial enzymes in dissolving pulp production. In: Shukla P (eds) Frontier discoveries and innovations in interdisciplinary microbiology. Springer, New Delhi, pp 133–156Google Scholar
  64. Kaur P, Bhardwaj NK, Sharma J (2016b) Pretreatment with xylanase and its significance in hemicellulose removal from mixed hardwood kraft pulp as a process step for viscose. Carbohydr Polym 145:95–102.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.03.023 Google Scholar
  65. Kimura M, Qi Z-D, Fukuzumi H, Kuga S, Isogai A (2014) Mesoporous structures in never-dried softwood cellulose fibers investigated by nitrogen adsorption. Cellulose 21:3193–3201.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-014-0342-z Google Scholar
  66. Kolar J (1997) Mechanism of autoxidative degradation of cellulose. Restaurator 18:163–176.  https://doi.org/10.1515/rest.1997.18.4.163 Google Scholar
  67. Köpcke V, Ibarra D, Ek M (2008) Increasing accessibility and reactivity of paper grade pulp by enzymatic treatment for use as dissolving pulp. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 23:363–368.  https://doi.org/10.3183/NPPRJ-2008-23-04-p363-368 Google Scholar
  68. Köpcke V, Ibarra D, Larsson PT, Ek M (2010) Optimization of treatment sequences for the production of dissolving pulp from birch kraft pulp. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 25:31–38.  https://doi.org/10.3183/NPPRJ-2010-25-01-p031-038 Google Scholar
  69. Krässig HA (1993) Cellulose: structure, accessibility and reactivity. Gordon and Breach Science, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  70. Kumar H, Christopher LP (2017) Recent trends and developments in dissolving pulp production and application. Cellulose 24:2347–2365.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-017-1285-y Google Scholar
  71. Laine C, Asikainen S, Talja R, Stepan A, Sixta H, Harlin A (2016) Simultaneous bench scale production of dissolving grade pulp and valuable hemicelluloses from softwood kraft pulp by ionic liquid extraction. Carbohydr Polym 136:402–408.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.09.039 Google Scholar
  72. Lê HQ, Ma Y, Borrega M, Sixta H (2016) Wood biorefinery based on γ-valerolactone/water fractionation. Green Chem 18:5466–5476.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C6GC01692H Google Scholar
  73. Lemeune S, Barbe J, Trichet A, Guilard R (2000) Degradation of cellulose models during an ozone treatment. Ozonation of glucose and cellobiose with oxygen or nitrogen as carrier gas at different pH. Ozone Sci Eng 22:447–460.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01919510009408789 Google Scholar
  74. Li F (2015) Valmet provides the main equipment for dissolving pulp production to a pulp mill of Chenming Pulp & Paper Co. Ltd. China Pulp Pap Ind 36:89Google Scholar
  75. Li H, Saeed A, Jahan MS, Ni Y, van Heiningen A (2010) Hemicellulose removal from hardwood chips in the pre-hydrolysis step of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. J Wood Chem Technol 30:48–60.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02773810903419227 Google Scholar
  76. Li D, Sevastyanova O, Ek M (2012) Pretreatment of softwood dissolving pulp with ionic liquids. Holzforschung 66:935–943.  https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2011-0180 Google Scholar
  77. Li J, Liu Y, Duan C, Zhang H, Ni Y (2015a) Mechanical pretreatment improving hemicelluloses removal from cellulosic fibers during cold caustic extraction. Bioresour Technol 192:501–506.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.06.011 Google Scholar
  78. Li J, Zhang H, Duan C, Liu Y, Ni Y (2015b) Enhancing hemicelluloses removal from a softwood sulfite pulp. Bioresour Technol 192:11–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.04.107 Google Scholar
  79. Li J, Ma X, Duan C, Liu Y, Zhang H, Ni Y (2016) Enhanced removal of hemicelluloses from cellulosic fibers by poly (ethylene glycol) during alkali treatment. Cellulose 23:231–238.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-015-0800-2 Google Scholar
  80. Li J, Hu H, Li H, Huang L, Chen L, Ni Y (2017a) Kinetics and mechanism of hemicelluloses removal from cellulosic fibers during the cold caustic extraction process. Bioresour Technol 234:61–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.03.026 Google Scholar
  81. Li J, Zhang S, Li H, Ouyang X, Huang L, Ni Y, Chen L (2017b) Cellulase pretreatment for enhancing cold caustic extraction-based separation of hemicelluloses and cellulose from cellulosic fibers. Bioresour Technol 251:1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.12.026 Google Scholar
  82. Lin Y-C, Cho J, Tompsett GA, Westmoreland PR, Huber GW (2009) Kinetics and mechanism of cellulose pyrolysis. J Phys Chem C 113:20097–20107.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp906702p Google Scholar
  83. Lundberg V, Bood J, Nilsson L, Axelsson E, Berntsson T, Svensson E (2014) Converting a kraft pulp mill into a multi-product biorefinery: techno-economic analysis of a case mill. Clean Technol Environ Policy 16:1411–1422.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10098-014-0741-8 Google Scholar
  84. Luterbacher JS, Parlange JY, Walker LP (2013) A pore-hindered diffusion and reaction model can help explain the importance of pore size distribution in enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. Biotechnol Bioeng 110:127–136.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.24614 Google Scholar
  85. Mäki-Arvela P, Anugwom I, Virtanen P, Sjöholm R, Mikkola J-P (2010) Dissolution of lignocellulosic materials and its constituents using ionic liquids—a review. Ind Crops Prod 32:175–201.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2010.04.005 Google Scholar
  86. Mansfield SD, Mooney C, Saddler JN (1999) Substrate and enzyme characteristics that limit cellulose hydrolysis. Biotechnol Progr 15:804–816.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bp9900864 Google Scholar
  87. Martínez AT (2016) How to break down crystalline cellulose. Science 352:1050–1051.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf8920 Google Scholar
  88. Maximino M, Adell A (2000) Acid hydrolytic treatment of cotton linters. Cellul Chem Technol 34:229–240Google Scholar
  89. Métais A, Germer E, Hostachy J-C (2011) Achievements in industrial ozone bleaching. Pap Technol 52:13–18.  https://doi.org/10.2524/jtappij.65.780 Google Scholar
  90. Miao Q, Chen L, Huang L, Tian C, Zheng L, Ni Y (2014) A process for enhancing the accessibility and reactivity of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp for viscose rayon production by cellulase treatment. Bioresour Technol 154:109–113.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.12.040 Google Scholar
  91. Miao Q, Tian C, Chen L, Huang L, Zheng L, Ni Y (2015) Combined mechanical and enzymatic treatments for improving the Fock reactivity of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp. Cellulose 22:803–809.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-014-0495-9 Google Scholar
  92. Mooney CA, Mansfield SD, Beatson RP, Saddler JN (1999) The effect of fiber characteristics on hydrolysis and cellulase accessibility to softwood substrates. Enzyme Microb Technol 25:644–650.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0229(99)00098-8 Google Scholar
  93. Nam S, French AD, Condon BD, Concha M (2016) Segal crystallinity index revisited by the simulation of X-ray diffraction patterns of cotton cellulose Iβ and cellulose II. Carbohydr Polym 135:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.08.035 Google Scholar
  94. Nelson R, Oliver DW (1971) Study of cellulose structure and its relation to reactivity. In: Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Symposia. Wiley Online Library, vol 36, no 1, pp 305–320Google Scholar
  95. O’sullivan AC (1997) Cellulose: the structure slowly unravels. Cellulose 4:173–207.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018431705579 Google Scholar
  96. Oudiani AE, Chaabouni Y, Msahli S, Sakli F (2011) Crystal transition from cellulose I to cellulose II in NaOH treated Agave americana L. fibre. Carbohydr Polym 86:1221–1229.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.06.037 Google Scholar
  97. Page D (1983) The origin of the differences between sulfite and kraft pulps. Pulp Pap Can 84:TR15–TR20Google Scholar
  98. Payne CM et al (2015) Fungal cellulases. Chem Rev 115:1308–1448.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cr500351c Google Scholar
  99. Povoas TM, Angelico DA, Egas AP, Loureiro PE, Gando-Ferreira LM, Carvalho M, Graca V (2012) Prebleaching of eucalypt kraft pulp with OP stages: effect of an acid pretreatment or chelation step. Tappi J 11:31–38Google Scholar
  100. Preston R (1968) Plants without cellulose. Sci Am 218:102–111Google Scholar
  101. Puls J, Janzon R, Saake B (2006) Comparative removal of hemicelluloses from paper pulps using nitren, cuen, NaON, and KOH. Lenzinger Berichte 86:63–70Google Scholar
  102. Quintana E, Valls C, Barneto AG, Vidal T, Ariza J, Roncero MB (2015a) Studying the effects of laccase treatment in a softwood dissolving pulp: cellulose reactivity and crystallinity. Carbohydr Polym 119:53–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.11.019 Google Scholar
  103. Quintana E, Valls C, Vidal T, Roncero MB (2015b) Comparative evaluation of the action of two different endoglucanases. Part I: on a fully bleached, commercial acid sulfite dissolving pulp. Cellulose 22:2067–2079.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-015-0623-1 Google Scholar
  104. Rahkamo L, Siika-Aho M, Viikari L, Leppänen T, Buchert J (1998a) Effects of cellulases and hemicellulase on the alkaline solubility of dissolving pulps. Holzforschung 52:630–634.  https://doi.org/10.1515/hfsg.1998.52.6.630 Google Scholar
  105. Rahkamo L, Viikari L, Buchert J, Paakkari T, Suortti T (1998b) Enzymatic and alkaline treatments of hardwood dissolving pulp. Cellulose 5:79–88.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009268713757 Google Scholar
  106. Ratanakhanokchai K et al. (2013) Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus strain B-6 multienzyme complex: A novel system for biomass utilization. In: Matovic MD (eds) Biomass now-cultivation and utilization. InTech, Rijeka, pp 369–379.  https://doi.org/10.5772/51820 Google Scholar
  107. Roman M, Winter WT (2004) Effect of sulfate groups from sulfuric acid hydrolysis on the thermal degradation behavior of bacterial cellulose. Biomacromolecules 5:1671–1677.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bm034519+ Google Scholar
  108. Roselli A, Hummel M, Monshizadeh A, Maloney T, Sixta H (2014) Ionic liquid extraction method for upgrading eucalyptus kraft pulp to high purity dissolving pulp. Cellulose 21:3655–3666.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-014-0344-x Google Scholar
  109. Schild G, Sixta H (2011) Sulfur-free dissolving pulps and their application for viscose and lyocell. Cellulose 18:1113–1128.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-011-9532-0 Google Scholar
  110. Schild G, Sixta H, Testova L (2010) Multifunctional alkaline pulping. Delignification and hemicellulose extraction. Cellul Chem Technol 44:35Google Scholar
  111. Sixta H (2006) Pulp properties and applications. In: Sixta H (ed) Handbook of pulp. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 1009–1067Google Scholar
  112. Sixta H et al (2013) Novel concepts of dissolving pulp production. Cellulose 20:1547–1561.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-013-9943-1 Google Scholar
  113. Stepan AM, Michud A, Hellstén S, Hummel M, Sixta H (2016a) IONCELL-P&F: pulp fractionation and fiber spinning with ionic liquids. Ind Eng Chem Res 55:8225–8233.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.6b00071 Google Scholar
  114. Stepan AM, Monshizadeh A, Hummel M, Roselli A, Sixta H (2016b) Cellulose fractionation with IONCELL-P. Carbohydr Polym 150:99–106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.04.099 Google Scholar
  115. Strunk P, Eliasson B, Hägglund C, Agnemo R (2011) The influence of properties in cellulose pulps on the reactivity in viscose manufacturing. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 26:81–89.  https://doi.org/10.3183/NPPRJ-2011-26-01-p081-089 Google Scholar
  116. Swatloski RP, Spear SK, Holbrey JD, Rogers RD (2002) Dissolution of cellose with ionic liquids. J Am Chem Soc 124:4974–4975.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja025790m Google Scholar
  117. Tian C, Zheng L, Miao Q, Nash C, Cao C, Ni Y (2013) Improvement in the Fock test for determining the reactivity of dissolving pulp. Tappi J 12:21–26.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-014-0332-1 Google Scholar
  118. Tian C, Zheng L, Miao Q, Cao C, Ni Y (2014) Improving the reactivity of kraft-based dissolving pulp for viscose rayon production by mechanical treatments. Cellulose 21:3647–3654.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-014-0332-1 Google Scholar
  119. Uprichard J (1971) Cellulose and lignin content in Pinus radiata D. Don. Within-tree variation in chemical composition, density, and tracheid length. Holzforschung 25:97–105.  https://doi.org/10.1515/hfsg.1971.25.4.97 Google Scholar
  120. Van Heiningen A, Tunc MS, MacEwan K (2005) Extraction of hemicellulose from mixed southern hardwood using hot water extraction. In: 2005 AIChE annual meeting and fall showcase, Cincinnati OHGoogle Scholar
  121. Wang N, Ding E, Cheng R (2007) Thermal degradation behaviors of spherical cellulose nanocrystals with sulfate groups. Polymer 48:3486–3493.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2007.03.062 Google Scholar
  122. Wang H, Pang B, Wu K, Kong F, Li B, Mu X (2014) Two stages of treatments for upgrading bleached softwood paper grade pulp to dissolving pulp for viscose production. Biochem Eng J 82:183–187.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2013.11.019 Google Scholar
  123. Wang Q, Liu S, Yang G, Chen J, Ni Y (2015) Cationic polyacrylamide enhancing cellulase treatment efficiency of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp. Bioresour Technol 183:42–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.02.011 Google Scholar
  124. Wang Q, Yuan T, Liu S, Yang G, Li W, Yang R (2017) Enzymatic activation of dissolving pulp with cationic polyacrylamide to enhance cellulase adsorption. J Bioresour Bioprod 2:16–19.  https://doi.org/10.21967/jbb.v2i1.85 Google Scholar
  125. Wang X, Duan C, Zhao C, Meng J, Qin X, Xu Y, Ni Y (2018) Heteropoly acid catalytic treatment for reactivity enhancement and viscosity control of dissolving pulp. Bioresour Technol.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.01.022 Google Scholar
  126. Zhang H, Zhao C, Li Z, Li J (2016) The fiber charge measurement depending on the poly-DADMAC accessibility to cellulose fibers. Cellulose 23:163–173.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-015-0793-x Google Scholar
  127. Zhao L, Yuan Z, Kapu NS, Chang XF, Beatson R, Trajano HL, Martinez DM (2017) Increasing efficiency of enzymatic hemicellulose removal from bamboo for production of high-grade dissolving pulp. Bioresour Technol 223:40–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.10.034 Google Scholar
  128. Zhu S, Wu Y, Chen Q et al (2006) Dissolution of cellulose with ionic liquids and its application: a mini-review. Green Chem 8:325–327.  https://doi.org/10.1039/B601395C Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hailong Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sarah Legere
    • 2
  • Zhibin He
    • 2
  • Hongjie Zhang
    • 1
  • Jianguo Li
    • 3
  • Bo Yang
    • 2
  • Shaokai Zhang
    • 2
    • 3
  • Lili Zhang
    • 2
  • Linqiang Zheng
    • 2
  • Yonghao Ni
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Tianjin Key Lab of Pulp and PaperTianjin University of Science and TechnologyTianjinChina
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Engineering and Limerick Pulp and Paper CentreUniversity of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada
  3. 3.College of Material EngineeringFujian Agriculture and Forestry UniversityFuzhouChina

Personalised recommendations