, Volume 25, Issue 7, pp 3985–3999 | Cite as

Chitosan-g-poly(acrylic acid)-bentonite composite: a potential immobilizing agent of heavy metals in soil

  • P. Kumararaja
  • K. M. Manjaiah
  • S. C. Datta
  • T. P. Ahammed Shabeer
  • Binoy Sarkar
Original Paper


Aiming to achieve heavy metal adsorption in water and soil environments, a montmorillonite rich bentonite was graft-copolymerized with chitosan, and the obtained composite material was evaluated as a metal immobilizing agent for remediating metal contaminated soil. The graft-copolymerization reaction in the composite was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Batch adsorption studies with varying experimental conditions, such as adsorbent amount, pH and metal concentration, were conducted to assess the metal adsorption capacity of the composite. The adsorption pattern followed the Langmuir isotherm model, and maximum monolayer capacity was 88.5, 72.9, 51.5 and 48.5 mg g−1 for Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni, respectively. Amendment of a contaminated soil with the composite enhanced the metal retention capacity by 3.4, 3.2, 4.9 and 5.6-fold for Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni, respectively, over unamended soil. The desorption percentage of metals from the composite treated soil was significantly lower than the unamended contaminated soil. The findings indicated that immobilization of heavy metals in soils could be achieved by the chitosan–bentonite, which would potentially be an inexpensive and sustainable environmental remediation technology.


Chitosan Bentonite Characterization Adsorption Metal contaminated soil Remediation 



Authors thank the Head, Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India for providing all the required facilities to carry out the present investigation.

Supplementary material

10570_2018_1828_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 17 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Kumararaja
    • 1
    • 2
  • K. M. Manjaiah
    • 1
  • S. C. Datta
    • 1
  • T. P. Ahammed Shabeer
    • 3
  • Binoy Sarkar
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Division of Soil Science and Agricultural ChemistryICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.ICAR-Central Institute of Brackishwater AquacultureChennaiIndia
  3. 3.ICAR-National Research Centre for GrapesPuneIndia
  4. 4.Department of Animal and Plant SciencesThe University of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  5. 5.Future Industries InstituteUniversity of South AustraliaMawson LakesAustralia

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