Cellulose

pp 1–12 | Cite as

Quantification of Kraft paper ageing in mineral oil impregnated insulation systems through mechanical characterization

  • I. A. Carrascal
  • C. Fernández-Diego
  • J. A. Casado
  • S. Diego
  • I. Fernández
  • A. Ortiz
Original Paper
  • 20 Downloads

Abstract

Power transformers use Kraft paper, thermally upgraded Kraft and other polymeric papers (ex. Nomex) as the main solid insulation between the winding conductors. Dielectric oil used in transformers as an insulating and cooling fluid typically has an operating temperature range of 60–90 °C. These service temperatures can cause slow degradation of both the oil and the insulating paper winding, with a loss of mechanical and dielectric properties. In this sense, this work analyzes paper degradation through Young’s Modulus, yield stress, rupture strength and strain under ultimate strength. An accelerated thermal ageing of the paper in mineral oil was carried out at temperatures of 110, 130 and 150 °C over different periods of time, in order to obtain information on the kinetics of the ageing degradation of the paper. The evolution of the mechanical properties and micro mechanisms of paper failure are analysed as a function of temperature and ageing time. Finally, the results obtained are compared with the traditional method of degradation analysis, based on the degree of polymerisation measurement.

Keywords

Kraft paper Power transformer Thermal ageing Degradation Tensile test Degree of polymerisation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful for the funding received to carry out this work from the State Scientific and Technical Research and Innovation Plan under the DPI2013-43897-P Grant Agreement, financed by the Government of Spain.

References

  1. Abelmalik AA, Fothergirl JC, Dodd SJ (2013) Ageing of Kraft paper insulation in natural ester dielectric fluid. In: IEEE international conference on solid dielectrics (ICSD), Bologna, Italy, pp 541–544.  https://doi.org/10.1109/icsd.2013.6619678
  2. Arroyo OH, Fofana I, Jalbert J (2014) Relationship between some chemical markers and the mechanical properties of the solid insulation used in power transformers. In: Proceedings of the 32nd electrical insulation conference, EIC, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp 348–352.  https://doi.org/10.1109/eic.2014.6869407
  3. Arroyo OH, Fofana I, Jalbert J, Ryadi M (2015) Relationships between methanol marker and mechanical performance of electrical insulation papers for power transformers under accelerated thermal aging. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 22(6):3625–3632.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2015.005386 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arroyo OH, Fofana I, Jalbert J, Rodriguez E, Rodriguez L, Ryadi M (2017a) Assessing changes in thermally upgraded papers with different nitrogen contents under accelerated aging. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 24(3):1829–1839.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2017.006449 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arroyo OH, Jalbert J, Fofana I, Ryadi M (2017b) Temperature dependence of methanol and the tensile strength of insulation paper: kinetics of the changes of mechanical properties during ageing. Cellulose 24(2):1031–1039.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-016-1123-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Azis N, Liu Q, Wang ZD (2014) Ageing assessment of transformer paper insulation through post mortem analysis. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 21(2):845–853.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2013.004118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cahyono B, Suwarno, Hariyanto N, Takahashi T, Okamoto T (2012) Influence of insulation paper degradation on economical operation period of power transformers. In: International conference on condition monitoring and diagnosis (CMD), Bali, Indonesia, pp 48–51.  https://doi.org/10.1109/cmd.2012.6416468
  8. Calvini P, Gorassini A, Merlani AL (2007) On the kinetics of cellulose degradation: looking beyond the pseudo zero order rate equation. Cellulose 15(2):293–303.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-007-9162-8 Google Scholar
  9. Carcedo J, Fernández I, Ortiz A, Delgado F, Renedo C, Pesquera C (2015) Aging assessment of dielectric vegetable oils. IEEE Electr Insul Mag 31(6):13–21.  https://doi.org/10.1109/MEI.2015.7303258 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ding HZ, Wang ZD (2008) On the degradation evolution equations of cellulose. Cellulose 15:205–224.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-007-9166-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Emsley AM, Stevens GC (1994) Review of chemical indicators of degradation of cellulosic electrical paper insulation in oil-filled power transformers. IEE Proc Sci Meas Technol 141(5):324–334.  https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-smt:19949957 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fofana I (2013) 50 Years in the development of insulating liquids. IEEE Electr Insul Mag 29(5):13–25.  https://doi.org/10.1109/MEI.2013.6585853 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gasser HP, Huser J, Krause C, Dahinden V, Emsley AM (1999) Determining the ageing parameters of cellulosic insulation in a transformer. In: Eleventh international symposium on high voltage engineering, London, UK, pp 4.143–4.147.  https://doi.org/10.1049/cp:19990813
  14. Gilbert R, Jalbert J, Tétreault P, Morin B, Denos Y (2009) Kinetics of the production of chain-end groups and methanol from the depolymerization of cellulose during the ageing of paper/oil systems. Part 1: standard wood kraft insulation. Cellulose 16(2):327–338.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-008-9261-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gilbert R, Jalbert J, Duchesne S, Tétreault P, Morin B, Denos Y (2010) Kinetics of the production of chain-end groups and methanol from the depolymerization of cellulose during the ageing of paper/oil systems. Part 2: thermally-upgraded insulating papers. Cellulose 17(2):253–269.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-009-9365-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Greenhalgh ES, Hiley MJ (2008) Fractography of polymer composites: current status and future issues. In: Proceedings of the 13th European conference on composite materials (ECCM13), Stockholm, Sweden, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  17. Heywood RJ, Emsley AM, Ali M (2000) Degradation of cellulosic insulation in power transformers part I: factors affecting the measurement of the average viscometric degree of polymerisation of new and aged electrical papers. IEE Proc Sci Meas Technol 147(2):86–90.  https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-smt:20000076 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hill DJT, Le TT, Darveniza M, Saha T (1995a) A study of degradation of cellulosic insulation materials in a power transformer, part 1. Molecular weight study of cellulose insulation paper. Polym Degrad Stab 48(1):79–87.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-3910(95)00023-f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hill DJT, Le TT, Darveniza M, Saha T (1995b) A study of degradation of cellulosic insulation materials in a power transformer part 2: tensile strength of cellulose insulation paper. Polym Degrad Stab 49(3):429–435.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-3910(95)00100-Z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hill DJT, Le TT, Darveniza M, Saha T (1996) A study of degradation of cellulosic insulation materials in a power transformer part 3: degradation products of cellulose insulation paper. Polym Degrad Stab 51(2):211–218.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-3910(95)00204-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hoom J, Ki Park D, Ok Han S (2010) Estimation for degradation characteristics of cellulose paper used in oil-filled transformer and analysis for correlationship using statical treatment. In: Conference on precision electromagnetic measurements (CPEM), Daejeon, Korea (South), pp 13–18.  https://doi.org/10.1109/cpem.2010.5544170
  22. Jalbert J, Lessard MC (2015) Cellulose chemical markers relationship with insulating paper post-mortem investigations. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 22(6):3550–3554.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2015.005295 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jalbert J, Rodriguez-Celis E, Duchesne S, Morin B, Ryadi M, Gilbert R (2015) Kinetics of the production of chain-end groups and methanol from the depolymerization of cellulose during the ageing of paper/oil systems. Part 3: extension of the study under temperature conditions over 120 C. Cellulose 22(1):829–848.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-014-0516-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kalariya K, Kannad H, Vyas D, Gandhi P (2007) A review on ageing of power transformer and insulation life assessment. In: POWERENG international conference power engineering, energy and electrical drives. Setubal, Portugal, pp 12–14.  https://doi.org/10.1109/powereng.2007.4380104
  25. Koch M, Tenbohlen S, Giselbrecht D, Homagk C, Leibfried T (2007) Onsite, online and post mortem insulation diagnostics at power transformers. Cigrè, vol 23, Brugge, Belgium, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  26. Leibfried T, Jaya M, Majer N, Schäfer M, Stach M, Voss S (2013) Postmortem investigation of power transformers-profile of degree of polymerization and correlation with furan concentration in the oil. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 28(2):886–893.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2013.2245152 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Levchik S, Scheirs J, Camino G, Tumiatti W, Avidano M (1997) Depolymerization processes in the thermal degradation of cellulosic paper insulation in electrical Transformers. Polym Degrad Stab 61(3):507–511.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-3910(97)00249-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lundgaard L, Allan D, Höhlein IA, Clavreul R, Dahlund MO, Gasser HP, Heywood R, Krause C, Lessard MC, Saha TK, Sokolov V, Pablo A (2007) Ageing of cellulose in mineral-oil insulated transformers. Technical Brochure 323, D1.01.10Google Scholar
  29. Madavan R, Balaraman S (2016) Failure analysis of transformer liquid–solid insulation system under selective environmental conditions using Weibull statics method. Eng Fail Anal 65:26–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2016.03.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Martins MA, Fialho M, Martins J, Soares M, Castro MC, Campelo HMR (2011) Power transformer end-of-life assessment-Pracana case study. IEEE Electr Insul Mag 27(6):15–26.  https://doi.org/10.1109/MEI.2011.6059980 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mirazie M, Gholami A, Tayebi HR (2009) Insulation condition assessment of power transformers using accelerated ageing tests. Turk J Electr Eng Comput Sci 17(1):39–54.  https://doi.org/10.3906/elk-0802-5 Google Scholar
  32. Müllerová E, Hrůza J, Velek J, Ullman I, Stříska F (2015) Life cycle management of power transformers: results and discussion of case studies. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 22(4):2379–2389.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2015.005025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Oommen TV, Prevost TA (2006) Cellulose insulation in oil-filled power transformers: part II maintaining insulation integrity and life. IEEE Electr Insul Mag 22(2):5–14.  https://doi.org/10.1109/MEI.2006.1618996 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pei C, Shengchang J, Lingyu Z, Yanjie C, Shihua Z, Yun L, Huisheng Y, Ping P (2016) The effect of thermal aging on surface structure and mechanical strength of oil-impregnated pressboard. In: International conference on condition monitoring and diagnosis CMD, 7757995, Xi’an, China, pp 1000–1003.  https://doi.org/10.1109/cmd.2016.7757995
  35. Perrier C, Coulibaly M, Marugan M (2016) Efficiency of ageing markers for different transformer insulation systems. In: IEEE International Conference on Dielectrics (ICD), Montpellier, France, 1-4.  https://doi.org/10.1109/icd.2016.7547743
  36. Prevost TA, Oommen TV (2006) Cellulose insulation in oil-filled power transformers: part I—history and development. IEEE Electr Insul Mag 22(1):28–35.  https://doi.org/10.1109/MEI.2006.1618969 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Prevost TA, Gasser HP, Krause C (2007) The value of post‐mortem investigations for the condition assessment of power transformers. In: Sixth annual technical conference, Weidmann-ACTI Inc., St. Pettersburg, USAGoogle Scholar
  38. Sun P, Sima W, Yang M, Wu J (2016) Influence of thermal aging on the breakdown characteristics of transformer oil impregnated paper. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 23(6):3373–3381.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2016.005306 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Verma P, Chauhan DS, Singh P (2007) Effects on tensile strength of transformer insulation paper under accelerated thermal and electrical stress. Annual report—conference on electrical insulation and dielectric phenomena, CEIDP 4451463, Vancouver, BC, Canada, pp 619–622.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ceidp.2007.4451463
  40. Wei YH, Mu HB, Deng JB, Zhang GJ (2016) Effect of space charge on breakdown characteristics of aged oil-paper insulation under DC voltage. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 23(5):3143–3150.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2016.005509 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Widyanugraha T, Rachmad R, Suwarno W (2015) DGA and tensile strength test on accelerated thermal ageing of ester oil and Kraft paper. In: International conference on electrical engineering and informatics (ICEEI), Bali, Indonesia, pp 177–180.  https://doi.org/10.1109/iceei.2015.7352491
  42. Zhu Y, Li S, Min D (2017) Origin of dielectric processes in aged oil impregnated paper. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 24(3):1625–1635.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2017.006136 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhuravleva N, Reznik A, Tukacheva A, Kiesewtter D (2016) The study of thermal ageing components paper-impregnated insulation of power Transformers. In: Young researchers in electrical and electronic engineering conference (EIConRusNW), St. Petersburg, Russia, pp 747–751.  https://doi.org/10.1109/eiconrusnw.2016.7448288
  44. Zhuravleva N, Reznik A, Kiesewetter D, Tashlanov D (2017) The impact of the degree of polymerisation of the cellulose molecules on the electrical and mechanical properties of insulating paper. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Russia section young researchers in electrical and electronic engineering conference, ElConRus, 7910781, St. Petersburg, Russia, pp 1220–1223.  https://doi.org/10.1109/eiconrus.2017.7910781

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LADICIM (Laboratory of Materials Science and Engineering), School of Civil EngineeringUniversity of CantabriaSantanderSpain
  2. 2.Electrical and Energy Engineering Department, School of Industrial and Telecomunications EngineeringUniversity of CantabriaSantanderSpain

Personalised recommendations