, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 2343–2354 | Cite as

Influence of the matrix and polymerization methods on the synthesis of BC/PANi nanocomposites: an IGC study

  • Emanuel Alonso
  • Marisa Faria
  • Artur Ferreira
  • Nereida Cordeiro
Original Paper


Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is a technique for evaluating surface properties. The current work emphasizes the use of IGC to evaluate the surface physicochemical changes during different bacterial cellulose (BC) processing methods as well as upon polyaniline (PANi) incorporation. The processing methods (oven-drying, freeze-drying, and regeneration) caused changes in the BC surface group distribution, where upon freeze-drying and regeneration, a more acidic behavior is obtained, compared to oven-drying (Kb/Ka decreased up to 24%). Through freeze-drying, the structural pore preservation increases (54%) the BC porosity, whereas through regeneration, the porosity decreases (23%), compared to BC oven-drying. Regarding the nanocomposites, with PANi incorporation, the overall properties evaluated by IGC were significantly changed. The \(\gamma_{\text{s}}^{\text{total}}\) increases up to 150%, indicating a more reactive surface in the nanocomposites. Also, is observed a sevenfold increase in the Kb/Ka and a less porous surface (up to 85%). Hence, the current work highlights the use of IGC as a viable technique to evaluate the physicochemical changes upon different BC modifications.


Bacterial cellulose Polyaniline Nanocomposites Inverse gas chromatography 



The authors would like to thank the Programa Nacional de Re-equipamento Científico, POCI 2010, for sponsoring IGC work (FEDER and Foundation for Science and Technology). Moreover, the help of Tomásia Fernandes and Igor Fernandes (Madeira University) in the laboratory work was appreciated.

Supplementary material

10570_2018_1736_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (793 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 792 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LB3 - Faculty of Science and EngineeringUniversity of MadeiraFunchalPortugal
  2. 2.CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials, Águeda School of Technology and ManagementUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal
  3. 3.CIIMAR - Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental ResearchUniversity of PortoMatosinhosPortugal

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