Cellulose

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 2419–2434 | Cite as

Bilayer biocomposites based on coated cellulose paperboard with films of polyhydroxybutyrate/cellulose nanocrystals

Original Paper
  • 63 Downloads

Abstract

In this paper, a biodegradable bilayer nanocomposite based on reinforced polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and cellulose paperboard was prepared. In order to obtain optimal properties two different processing methods were studied: casting and compression molding. Compression molding was selected as the most effective technique to achieve a continuous layer of PHB covering the entire surface of the paperboard. Mechanical and barrier properties of the composites were optimized, using the least amount of PHB due to its high cost compared to fossil-derived polymers. Then, the bilayer nanocomposite was produced according to the selected method and the least PHB proportion, demonstrating that PHB/CNC coating overcomes water sensibility of the cellulose paperboard and exhibited a performance enhancement without detrimental effect of the pristine PHB and paperboard properties. It was demonstrated that PHB and PHB/CNC have the potential to replace non-renewable polymers as fully bio-based materials, obtaining paperboard coatings with environmental advantages, such as non-toxicity, high recyclability and biodegradability.

Keywords

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Cellulose paperboard, Cellulose nanocrystals Bilayer biocomposite 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the financial support of CONICET (PIP 0527) and Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata.

References

  1. Andersson C (2008) New ways to enhance the functionality of paperboard by surface treatment—a review. Packag Technol Sci 21:339–373.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pts.823 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arrieta MP, Samper MD, Aldas M, López J (2017) On the use of PLA–PHB blends for sustainable food packaging applications. Materials (Basel) 10:1–26.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10091008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azizi Samir M, Alloin F, Dufresne A (2005) Review of recent research into cellulosic whisker, their properties and their application in nanocomposites field. Biomacromol 6:612–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barham PJ, Keller A, Otun EL, Holmes PA (1984) Crystallization and morphology of a bacterial thermoplastic: poly-3-hydroxybutyrate. J Mater Sci 19:2781–2794.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01026954 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brinchi L, Cotana F, Fortunati E, Kenny JM (2013) Production of nanocrystalline cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass: technology and applications. Carbohydr Polym 94:154–169.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.01.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cornibert J, Marchessault RH (1972) Physical properties of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate. J Mol Biol 71:735–756.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-2836(72)80035-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cyras VP, Commisso MS, Mauri AN, Vázquez A (2007) Biodegradable double-layer films based on biological resources: polyhydroxybutyrate and cellulose. J Appl Polym Sci 106:749–756.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.26663 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cyras VP, Commisso MS, Vázquez A (2009) Biocomposites based on renewable resource: acetylated and non acetylated cellulose cardboard coated with polyhydroxybutyrate. Polymer (Guildf) 50:6274–6280.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2009.10.065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. D’Amico DA, Manfredi LB, Cyras VP (2012) Relationship between thermal properties, morphology, and crystallinity of nanocomposites based on polyhydroxybutyrate. J Appl Polym Sci 123:20–208.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.26663 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. de Carvalho KCC, Montoro SR, Cioffi MOH, Voorwald HJC (2016) Polyhydroxyalkanoates and their nanobiocomposites with cellulose nanocrystals. In: Thomas S, Shanks R, Chandrasekharakurup S (eds) Design and applications of nanostructured polymer blends and nanocomposite systems. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 261–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Desobry S, Arab-Tehrany E (2014) Diffusion barrier layers for edible food packaging. In: Comprehensive materials processing. Elsevier, pp 499–518Google Scholar
  12. Farmer N (2013) The future: global trends and analysis for the international packaging market in relation to the speed of impact of packaging innovation and likely material changes. In: Trends in packaging of food, beverages and other fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG). Elsevier, pp 288–312Google Scholar
  13. Gong L, Chase DB, Noda I et al (2015) Discovery of β-form crystal structure in electrospun poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate] (PHBHx) nanofibers: from fiber mats to single fibers. Macromolecules 48:6197–6205.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.macromol.5b00638 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gunaratne LMWK, Shanks RA, Amarasinghe G (2004) Thermal history effects on crystallisation and melting of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). Thermochim Acta 423:127–135.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2004.05.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Johansson C, Bras J, Mondragon I et al (2012) Renewable fibers and bio-based materials for packaging applications—a review of recent developments. BioResources 7:2506–2552.  https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.7.2.2506-2552 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kontominas MG (2010) Packaging and the shelf life of milk. In: Robertson GL (ed) Food packaging and shelf life—a practical guide. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 81–102Google Scholar
  17. Mekonnen T, Mussone P, Khalil H, Bressler D (2013) Progress in bio-based plastics and plasticizing modifications. J Mater Chem A 1:13379–13398.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ta12555f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Morán JI, Alvarez VA, Cyras VP, Vázquez A (2008) Extraction of cellulose and preparation of nanocellulose from sisal fibers. Cellulose 15:149–159.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-007-9145-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mottin AC, Ayres E, Eliane A et al (2016) What changes in poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) when processed as electrospun nanofibers or thermo-compression molded film? Mater Res 19:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Njuguna J, Wambua P, Pielichowski K, Kayvantash K (2011) Natural fibre-reinforced polymer composites and nanocomposites for automotive applications. Cellulose fibers: bio-and nano-polymer composites. Springer, Berlin, pp 661–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pan P, Inoue Y (2009) Polymorphism and isomorphism in biodegradable polyesters. Prog Polym Sci 34:605–640.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2009.01.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pearce R, Marchessault R (1994) Multiple melting in blends of isotactic and atactic poly(β-hydroxybutyrate). Polymer (Guildf) 35:3990–3997.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-3861(94)90285-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Peelman N, Ragaert P, De Meulenaer B et al (2013) Application of bioplastics for food packaging. Trends Food Sci Technol 32:128–141.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2013.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Plackett D, Vázquez A (2004) Natural polymer sources. In: Baillie C (ed) Green composites. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, pp 123–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Puglia D, Fortunati E, D’Amico DA et al (2016) Influence of processing conditions on morphological, thermal and degradative behavior of nanocomposites based on plasticized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and organo-modified clay. J Polym Environ 24:12–22.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-015-0744-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rastogi V, Samyn P (2015) Bio-based coatings for paper applications. Coatings 5:887–930.  https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5040887 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Robertson GL (2013) Paper and paper-based packaging materials. In: Food packaging principles and practice. CRC Press, pp 167–188Google Scholar
  28. Saxena M, Pappu A, Haque R, Sharma A (2011) Sisal fiber based polymer composites and their applications. Cellulose fibers: bio- and nano-polymer composites. Springer, Berlin, pp 589–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Seoane IT, Manfredi LB, Cyras VP (2015) Properties and processing relationship of polyhydroxybutyrate and cellulose biocomposites. Procedia Mater Sci 8:807–813.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mspro.2015.04.139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Seoane IT, Fortunati E, Puglia D et al (2016) Development and characterization of bionanocomposites based on poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) and cellulose nanocrystals for packaging applications. Polym Int.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pi.5150 Google Scholar
  31. Seoane IT, Cerrutti P, Vazquez A et al (2017) Polyhydroxybutyrate-based nanocomposites with cellulose nanocrystals and bacterial cellulose. J Polym Environ 25:586–598.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-016-0838-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Siracusa V, Rocculi P, Romani S, Rosa MD (2008) Biodegradable polymers for food packaging: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 19:634–643.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2008.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ten E, Jiang L, Wolcott MP (2012) Crystallization kinetics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/cellulose nanowhiskers composites. Carbohydr Polym 90:541–550.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.05.076 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang H, Tashiro K (2016) Reinvestigation of crystal structure and intermolecular interactions of biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) α-form and the prediction of its mechanical property. Macromolecules 49:581–594.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.macromol.5b02310 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang C, Hsu C-H, Hwang I-H (2008) Scaling laws and internal structure for characterizing electrospun poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] fibers. Polymer (Guildf) 49:4188–4195.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2008.07.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yu H, Yan C, Yao J (2014) Fully biodegradable food packaging materials based on functionalized cellulose nanocrystals/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nanocomposites. RSC Adv 4:59792–59802.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C4RA12691B CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (INTEMA)UNMdP, CONICET, Facultad de IngenieríaMar del PlataArgentina

Personalised recommendations