Production of cellulose carbamate using urea-based deep eutectic solvents
- 375 Downloads
Cellulose carbamate is a bio-based, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly material and thus an interesting alternative to petroleum-based polymers or fibers from cellulose produced using the viscose process for producing fibers from cellulose. In this study we described an efficient and green method to prepare cellulose carbamates by using deep eutectic solvents. Three different urea-based deep eutectic solvents were used with different molar ratios and cellulose consistency. Nitrogen content of cellulose carbamates increases when cellulose consistency increases from 5 to 20%. Also, the reaction temperature affects the nitrogen content. In addition, the cellulose crystallinity decreases during the carbamation reaction with 20% cellulose consistency using any of the three deep eutectic solvents studied, when the sample is processed in a high-consistency reactor. By selecting suitable parameters, the nitrogen content of cellulose carbamates can be easily adjusted to a desired level.
KeywordsCellulose Urea Cellulose carbamate Deep eutectic solvent DES
This work was a part of the ACel program of the Finnish Bioeconomy Cluster FIBIC. The funding of the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (TEKES) is acknowledged. We would like to thank Eija Silvasti, Mari Leino and Aleksi Sahari for their laboratory assistance.
- Wahlström R, Hiltunen J, de Souza Pitaluga, Nascente Sirkka M, Vuoti S, Kruus K (2016) Comparison of three deep eutetic solvents and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate in the pretreatment of lignocellulose: effect on enzyme stability, lignocellulose digestibility and one-pot hydrolysis. RSC Adv 6:68100–68110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Weise U (1997) Characterization and mechanisms of changes in wood pulp fibres causes by water removal. Acta Polytechnic Scandinavica, 249, Finnish University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
- Zhang Y, Yin C, Zhang Y, Wu H (2013) Synthesis and Characterization of cellulose carbamate from wood pulp, assisted by supercritical carbon dioxide. Bioresources 8(1):1398–1408Google Scholar