, Volume 24, Issue 10, pp 4291–4302 | Cite as

Facile preparation of a cellulose microfibers–exfoliated graphite composite: a robust sensor for determining dopamine in biological samples

  • Selvakumar Palanisamy
  • Pan Yi-Fan
  • Shen-Ming ChenEmail author
  • Vijayalakshmi VelusamyEmail author
  • James M. Hall
Original Paper


A simple and robust dopamine (DA) sensor was developed using a cellulose microfibers (CMF)–exfoliated graphite composite-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for the first time. The graphite-CMF composite was prepared by sonication of pristine graphite in CMF solution and was characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform, infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. The cyclic voltammetry results reveal that the graphite-CMF composite modified SPCE has superior electrocatalytic activity against oxidation of dopamine than SPCE modified with pristine graphite and CMF. The presence of large edge plane defects on exfoliated graphite and abundant oxygen functional groups of CMF enhance electrocatalytic activity and decrease potential to oxidize DA. Differential pulse voltammetry was used to quantify DA using the graphite-CMF composite-modified SPCE and demonstrated a linear response for DA detection in the range of 0.06–134.5 µM. The sensor shows a detection limit at 10 nM with an appropriate sensitivity and displays appropriate recovery of DA in human serum samples with good repeatability. Sensor selectivity is demonstrated in the presence of 50-fold concentrations of potentially active interfering compounds including ascorbic acid, uric acid, and dihydroxybenzene isomers.


Exfoliated graphite Cellulose microfibers Functional composite Dopamine Electrochemical sensor 



This project was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (Republic of China). Authors are thankful to the department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology for providing the high-resolution SEM and elemental mapping facility.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electroanalysis and Bioelectrochemistry Lab, Department of Chemical Engineering and BiotechnologyNational Taipei University of TechnologyTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Division of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, School of EngineeringManchester Metropolitan UniversityManchesterUK

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