Skip to main content

Release and absorption of formaldehyde by textiles

Abstract

Formaldehyde has been one of the most widely and most controversially debated substances in indoor spaces. Its classification as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 2004 and the EU in 2015 has given rise to further studies into possible indoor emission sources. It is known that the utilization of formaldehyde-containing chemicals in textiles is widespread. As a result, the question arises as to whether, and to what extent, textiles can contribute to contamination of indoor air with formaldehyde. However, there is hardly any information available on this subject, as the formaldehyde content in textiles is generally determined through extraction procedures. In contrast, the procedure used in this work is focused on the conditions of the indoor space. The release of formaldehyde into the ambient air from various textiles is followed using intensive demand intervals under defined climatic conditions in emission chambers. Additionally, extractions are taken in order to determine the content of free formaldehyde. Doping tests enable the differing properties of various textiles to be investigated with respect to the adsorption and desorption processes of formaldehyde. Through the application of a special double chamber, the diffusion of formaldehyde through textile membranes can be determined. The results demonstrate that extraction procedures do not necessarily correctly reveal the emission behavior of textiles.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Adapted from Schripp et al. (2014)

Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. AIR—German Committee on Indoor Guideline Values (2016) Richtwert für Formaldehyd in der Innenraumluft. Bundesgesundheitsblatt 59:1040–1044. doi:10.1007/s00103-016-2389-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Clunie JC, Roberts EC (1987a) Sorption and desorption of formaldehyde by fabrics: part one: cotton fabrics. Text Chem Color 19:15–18

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Clunie JC, Roberts EC (1987b) Sorption and desorption of formaldehyde by fabrics: part two: cotton, viscose, Nylon 6,6 and polyester. Text Chem Color 19:73–75

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. De Groot A, Le Coz CJ, Lensen GJ, Flyvholm M-A, Maibach HI, Coenraads P-J (2010a) Formaldehyde-releasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Formaldehyde-releasers in clothes: durable press chemical finishes. Part 1. Contact Dermatitis 62:259–271

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. De Groot A, Le Coz CJ, Lensen GJ, Flyvholm M-A, Maibach HI, Coenraads P-J (2010b) Formaldehyde-releasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Formaldehyde-releasers in clothes: durable press chemical finishes. Part 2. Contact Dermatitis 63:1–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Dehabadi V, Buschmann H-J, Gutmann J (2013) Durable press finishing of cotton fabrics: an overview. Text Res J 83(1974–1995):22

    Google Scholar 

  7. EN 717–1 (2005) Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—part 1: formaldehyde emission by the chamber method. Beuth, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  8. EU (2014) 2014/350/EU: commission decision of 5 June 2014 establishing the ecological criteria for the award of the EU Ecolabel for textile products (notified under document c(2014) 3677) Text with EEA relevance. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32014D0350. Accessed 6 December 2016

  9. EuCIA (2015) New classification for formaldehyde and styrene: make sure that your classification, label and safety data sheet (SDS) are correct. http://www.eucia.eu/userfiles/files/20150107_New%20labelling%20for%20formaldehyde%20and%20styrene.pdf. Accessed 11 July 2016

  10. GAO (United States Government Accountability Office) (2010) Formaldehyde in textiles. Report to Congressional Committees August 2010. Report GAO-10-875

  11. Huang S, Xiong J, Zhang Y (2015) The impact of relative humidity on the emission behavior of formaldehyde in building materials. Proced Eng 121:59–66

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (2012) Chemical agents and related occupations—a review of humans carcinogens. IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans, 100 F, World Human Organization. Lyon, France

  13. ISO 14184–1 (2011) Textiles—determination of formaldehyde–part 1: free and hydrolysed formaldehyde (water extraction method). Beuth, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  14. ISO 14184–2 (2011) Textiles–determination of formaldehyde–part 2: released formaldehyde (vapour absorption method). Beuth, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  15. ISO 16000–3 (2011) Indoor air–part 3: determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds in indoor air and test chamber air–active sampling method. Beuth, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  16. ISO 16000–9 (2006) Indoor air–part 9: determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds from building products and furnishing–emission test chamber method. Beuth, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  17. Kawakami Y, Maruo YY, Nakagawa T, Saito H (2015) A screening method for detecting formaldehyde emitted from textile products. Measurement 62:41–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Kelly TJ, Smith DL, Satola J (1999) Emission rates of formaldehyde from materials and consumer products found in California homes. Environ Sci Technol 33:81–88

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Langer S, Bekö G (2013) Indoor air quality in the Swedish housing stock and its dependence on building characteristics. Build Environ 69:44–54

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Langer S, Ramalho O, Derbez M, Ribéron J, Kirchner S, Mandin C (2016) Indoor environmental quality in French dwellings and building characteristics. Atmos Environ 128:82–91

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Morrison GC, Weschler CJ, Bekö G (2016a) Dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing: comparison of model to human participant results. Indoor Air, in press

  22. Morrison GC, Weschler CJ, Bekö G (2016b) Dermal uptake directly from air under transient conditions: advances in modeling and comparisons with experimental results for human subjects. Indoor Air 26:913–924. doi:10.1111/ina.12277

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Morrison GC, Weschler CJ, Bekö G, Koch HM, Salthammer T, Schripp T, Toftum J, Clausen G (2016c) Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 26:113–118. doi:10.1038/jes.2015.42

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Nash T (1953) The colorimetric estimation of formaldehyde by means of the Hantzsch reaction. Biochem J 55:416–421. doi:10.1042/bj0550416

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Nobuaki K, Tomoko S, Noriko O, Late SY (1990a) The effect of moisture content on the sorption of HCHO vapor by fibers. J Jpn Res Assoc Text End-Uses 31:87–94

    Google Scholar 

  26. Nobuaki K, Tomoko S, Noriko O, Late SY (1990b) Studies on desorption of formaldehyde for fibers. J Jpn Res Assoc Text End-Uses 31:95–101

    Google Scholar 

  27. Piccinini P, Senaldi C, Summa C (2007) European survey on the release of formaldehyde from textiles. European Communities. http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC36150/6150%20-%20HCHO_survey_final_report.pdf. Accessed 6 December 2016

  28. Salthammer T (1993) Photophysical properties of 3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydrolutidine in solution: application to the analysis of formaldehyde. J Photochem Photobiol, A 74:195–201

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Salthammer T (2014) Release of organic compounds and particulate matter from products, materials, and electrical devices in the indoor environment. In: Pluschke P, Schleibinger H (eds.) Indoor air pollution, Auflage 2, Hdb Env Chem. Springer, Berlin. doi:10.1007/698_2014_258

  30. Salthammer T, Mentese S (2008) Comparison of analytical techniques for the determination of aldehydes in test chambers. Chemosphere 73:1351–1356

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Salthammer T, Mentese S, Marutzky R (2010) Formaldehyde in the indoor environment. Chem Rev 110:2536–2572. doi:10.1021/cr800399g

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Schripp T, Etienne S, Fauck C, Fuhrmann F, Märk L, Salthammer T (2014) Application of proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometry for indoor air quality research. Indoor Air 24:178–189

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Weschler CJ, Nazaroff WW (2014) Dermal uptake of organic vapors commonly found in indoor air. Environ Sci Technol 48:1230–1237

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. WHO (2010) WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: selected pollutants. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen

    Google Scholar 

  35. Wiglusz R, Sitko E, Jarnuszkiewicz I (1991) Formaldehyde release from furnishing fabrics. Effect of ageing, temperature and air humidity. Bull Inst Marit Trop Med Gdyn 42:51–56

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Wiglusz R, Sitko E, Jarnuszkiewicz I (1995) Effect of environmental conditions on re-emission of formaldehyde from textile materials. Bull Inst Marit Trop Med Gdyn 46:53–58

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Xiong J, Wei W, Huang S, Zhang Y (2013) Association between the emission rate and temperature for chemical pollutants in building materials: general correlation and understanding. Environ Sci Technol 47:8540–8547

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Doreen Markewitz for support with the measurements with the Aerolaser system, Manuela Lingnau for designing the figures as well as Karen McDonald and Heike Pichlmeier for editing and translation support.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jan Gunschera.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 45 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Aldag, N., Gunschera, J. & Salthammer, T. Release and absorption of formaldehyde by textiles. Cellulose 24, 4509–4518 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-017-1393-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Textile
  • Formaldehyde
  • Emission
  • Adsorption
  • Desorption
  • Diffusion