Enhanced antimicrobial coating on cotton and its impact on UV protection and physical characteristics

Abstract

This research intends to enhance the antimicrobial activity of cotton fabrics coated with metallized TiO2-based colloids through integrating noble metals (Ag, Au) and silica in the synthesis process. Colloids were synthesized through a low-temperature sol–gel method and applied to the surface of fabrics at ambient temperature. Four molar ratios of metal to TiO2 (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1%) were used in the synthesis process of colloids to elucidate the impacts of metal type and concentration on the antimicrobial activity of fabrics. The antimicrobial property of coated fabrics was studied through monitoring the growth reduction rate of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterium in dark. The UV protection property of coated fabrics was analyzed based on the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) and UV transmittance rates of fabrics. Moreover, the impact of coating process on the mechanical characteristics of fabrics was examined based on changes in fabric tensile strength and air permeability. The surface morphology and elemental composition of coated fabrics were characterized using SEM images and EDS analysis, respectively. It was observed that the presence of noble metals significantly enhanced the antimicrobial property of fabrics particularly for samples coated with Ag-modified colloids. Also, the presence of metals and silica showed positive and negative impacts on UPF values of fabrics, respectively. While the fabrics’ tensile strength improved, the air permeability decreased to some extent after coating. The role of influencing parameters such as the type and concentration of metals, the presence of silica, and the associated mechanisms were discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. Ahearn DG, May LL, Gabriel MM (1995) Adherence of organisms to silver-coated surfaces. J Ind Microbiol 15:372–376

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Bingham S, Daoud WA (2011) Recent advances in making nano-sized TiO2 visible-light active through rare-earth metal doping. J Mater Chem 21:2041–2050

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Busila M, Musat V, Textor T, Mahltig B (2015) Synthesis and characterization of antimicrobial textile finishing based on Ag:ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan biocomposites. RSC Adv 5:21562–21571

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Cui Y, Zhao Y, Tian Y, Zhang W, Lü X, Jiang X (2012) The molecular mechanism of action of bactericidal gold nanoparticles on Escherichia coli. Biomaterials 33:2327–2333

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Daoud WA, Xin JH (2004) Low temperature sol–gel processed photocatalytic titania coating. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 29:25–29

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Daoud WA, Xin JH, Zhang Y-H (2005) Surface functionalization of cellulose fibers with titanium dioxide nanoparticles and their combined bactericidal activities. Surf Sci 599:69–75

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Dastjerdi R, Montazer M (2010) A review on the application of inorganic nano-structured materials in the modification of textiles: focus on anti-microbial properties. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 79:5–18

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Dev VRG, Venugopal J, Sudha S, Deepika G, Ramakrishna S (2009) Dyeing and antimicrobial characteristics of chitosan treated wool fabrics with henna dye. Carbohydr Polym 75:646–650

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Egger S, Lehmann RP, Height MJ, Loessner MJ, Schuppler M (2009) Antimicrobial properties of a novel silver–silica nanocomposite material. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:2973–2976

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. El-Nahrawy AM, Ali AI, Abou Hammad AB, Youssef AM (2016) Influences of Ag-NPs doping chitosan/calcium silicate nanocomposites for optical and antibacterial activity. Int J Biol Macromol 93:267–275

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Fan J, Hunter L (2009) Engineering apparel fabrics and garments. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK

    Google Scholar 

  12. Fatahi I, Yazdi AA (2010) Assessment of the relationship between air permeability of woven fabrics and its mechanical properties. Fibres Text East Eur 18:68–71

    Google Scholar 

  13. Feng Q, Wu J, Chen G, Cui F, Kim T, Kim J (2000) A mechanistic study of the antibacterial effect of silver ions on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. J Biomed Mater Res 52:662–668

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Fu G, Vary PS, Lin C-T (2005) Anatase TiO2 nanocomposites for antimicrobial coatings. J Phys Chem B 109:8889–8898

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Fujishima A, Rao TN, Tryk DA (2000) Titanium dioxide photocatalysis. J Photochem Photobiol C Photochem Rev 1:1–21

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Yuan G, Cranston R (2008) Recent advances in antimicrobial treatments of textiles. Text Res J 78:60–72

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Gashti MP (2014) Nanocomposite coatings: state of the art approach in textile finishing. J Text Sci Eng 4:1

    Google Scholar 

  18. Gashti MP, Eslami S (2015) A robust method for producing electromagnetic shielding cellulose via iron oxide pillared clay coating under ultraviolet irradiation. Funct Mater Lett 8:1550073

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Gashti MP, Gashti MP (2013) Effect of colloidal dispersion of clay on some properties of wool fiber. J Dispers Sci Technol 34:853–858

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Gashti MP, Yousefpour Navid M, Hossein Rahimi M (2013) Effects of coating of nano-and microemulsion silicones on thermal properties and flammability of polyethylene terephthalate textile. Pigment Resin Technol 42:34–44

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Gashti MP, Ghehi ST, Arekhloo SV, Mirsmaeeli A, Kiumarsi A (2015) Electromagnetic shielding response of UV-induced polypyrrole/silver coated wool. Fibers Polym 16:585–592

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Gashti MP, Pakdel E, Alimohammadi F (2016) Nanotechnology-based coating techniques for smart textiles. In: HU J (ed) Active coatings for smart textiles. Woodhead Publishing, Duxford

    Google Scholar 

  23. Han S, Yang Y (2005) Antimicrobial activity of wool fabric treated with curcumin. Dyes Pigments 64:157–161

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Havlová M (2013) Air permeability and costructional parameters of woven fabrics. Fibres Text East Eur 21:84–89

    Google Scholar 

  25. Hebeish AA, Abdelhady MM, Youssef AM (2013) TiO2 nanowire and TiO2 nanowire doped Ag-PVP nanocomposite for antimicrobial and self-cleaning cotton textile. Carbohydr Polym 91:549–559

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Kim JS, Kuk E, Yu KN, Kim J-H, Park SJ, Lee HJ, Kim SH, Park YK, Park YH, Hwang C-Y, Kim Y-K, Lee Y-S, Jeong DH, Cho M-H (2007a) Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles. Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med 3:95–101

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Kim YH, Lee DK, Cha HG, Kim CW, Kang YS (2007b) Synthesis and characterization of antibacterial Ag–SiO2 nanocomposite. J Phys Chem C 111:3629–3635

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Ladhari N, Baouab MHV, Ben Dekhil A, Bakhrouf A, Niquette P (2007) Antibacterial activity of quaternary ammonium salt grafted cotton. J Text Inst 98:209–218

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Lakshmanan A, Chakraborty S (2017) Coating of silver nanoparticles on jute fibre by in situ synthesis. Cellulose 24:1563–1577

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Lewin M (2007) Handbook of fiber chemistry, 3rd edn. Taylor and Francis Group LLC, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  31. Li W-R, Xie X-B, Shi Q-S, Zeng H-Y, Ou-Yang Y-S, Chen Y-B (2010) Antibacterial activity and mechanism of silver nanoparticles on Escherichia coli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85:1115–1122

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Li G, Liu H, Zhao H, Gao Y, Wang J, Jiang H, Boughton RI (2011) Chemical assembly of TiO2 and TiO2@Ag nanoparticles on silk fiber to produce multifunctional fabrics. J Colloid Interface Sci 358:307–315

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Li Z, Wang L, Chen S, Feng C, Chen S, Yin N, Yang J, Wang H, Xu Y (2015) Facilely green synthesis of silver nanoparticles into bacterial cellulose. Cellulose 22:373–383

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Linsebigler AL, Lu G, Yates JT Jr (1995) Photocatalysis on TiO2 surfaces: principles, mechanisms, and selected results. Chem Rev 95:735–758

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Liu J, Liu C, Liu Y, Chen M, Hu Y, Yang Z (2013) Study on the grafting of chitosan–gelatin microcapsules onto cotton fabrics and its antibacterial effect. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 109:103–108

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Ma M, Sun Y, Sun G (2003) Antimicrobial cationic dyes: part 1: synthesis and characterization. Dyes Pigments 58:27–35

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Mahltig B, Gutmann E, Reibold M, Meyer DC, Böttcher H (2009) Synthesis of Ag and Ag/SiO2 sols by solvothermal method and their bactericidal activity. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 51:204–214

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Mahltig B, Fiedler D, Fischer A, Simon P (2010) Antimicrobial coatings on textiles–modification of sol–gel layers with organic and inorganic biocides. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 55:269–277

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Mahltig B, Tatlises B, Fahmi A, Haase H (2013) Dendrimer stabilized silver particles for the antimicrobial finishing of textiles. J Text Inst 104:1042–1048

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Montazer M, Pakdel E (2010) Reducing photoyellowing of wool using nano TiO2. Photochem Photobiol 86:255–260

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Montazer M, Pakdel E (2011) Functionality of nano titanium dioxide on textiles with future aspects: focus on wool. J Photochem Photobiol Photochem C Rev 12:293–303

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Montazer M, Behzadnia A, Pakdel E, Rahimi MK, Moghadam MB (2011a) Photo induced silver on nano titanium dioxide as an enhanced antimicrobial agent for wool. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 103:207–214

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Montazer M, Pakdel E, Behzadnia A (2011b) Novel feature of nano-titanium dioxide on textiles: antifelting and antibacterial wool. J Appl Polym Sci 121:3407–3413

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Nooralian Z, Parvinzadeh Gashti M, Ebrahimi I (2016) Fabrication of a multifunctional graphene/polyvinylphosphonic acid/cotton nanocomposite via facile spray layer-by-layer assembly. RSC Adv 6:23288–23299

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Pakdel E, Daoud W (2013) Self-cleaning cotton functionalized with TiO2/SiO2: focus on the role of silica. J Colloid Interface Sci 401:1–7

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Pakdel E, Daoud WA, Wang X (2013) Self-cleaning and superhydrophilic wool by TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite. Appl Surf Sci 275:397–402

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Pakdel E, Daoud WA, Sun L, Wang X (2014a) Visible and UV functionality of TiO2 ternary nanocomposites on cotton. Appl Surf Sci 321:447–456

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Pakdel E, Daoud WA, Wang X (2014b) Assimilating the photo-induced functions of TiO2-based compounds in textiles: emphasis on the sol–gel process. Text Res J 85:1404–1428

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Pakdel E, Daoud WA, Afrin T, Sun L, Wang X (2015) Self-cleaning wool: effect of noble metals and silica on visible-light-induced functionalities of nano TiO2 colloid. J Text Inst 106:1348–1361

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Paul R, Bautista L, De La Varga M, Botet JM, Casals E, Puntes V, Marsal F (2010) Nano-cotton fabrics with high ultraviolet protection. Text Res J 80:454–462

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Periolatto M, Ferrero F, Vineis C, Rombaldoni F (2013) Multifunctional finishing of wool fabrics by chitosan UV-grafting: an approach. Carbohydr Polym 98:624–629

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Qi K, Daoud WA, Xin JH, Mak CL, Tang W, Cheung WP (2006) Self-cleaning cotton. J Mater Chem 16:4567–4574

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Rai M, Yadav A, Gade A (2009) Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials. Biotechnol Adv 27:76–83

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Rai A, Prabhune A, Perry CC (2010) Antibiotic mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles with potent antimicrobial activity and their application in antimicrobial coatings. J Mater Chem 20:6789–6798

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Shateri Khalil-Abad M, Yazdanshenas ME, Nateghi MR (2009) Effect of cationization on adsorption of silver nanoparticles on cotton surfaces and its antibacterial activity. Cellulose 16:1147

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Singh R, Jain A, Panwar S, Gupta D, Khare SK (2005) Antimicrobial activity of some natural dyes. Dyes Pigments 66:99–102

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Sondi I, Salopek-Sondi B (2004) Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent: a case study on E. coli as a model for gram-negative bacteria. J Colloid Interface Sci 275:177–182

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Sun Y, Sun G (2001) Novel regenerable N-halamine polymeric biocides. III. Grafting hydantoin-containing monomers onto synthetic fabrics. J Appl Polym Sci 81:1517–1525

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Sun G, Worley SD (2005) Chemistry of durable and regenerable biocidal textiles. J Chem Educ 82:60

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Tang B, Sun L, Li J, Kaur J, Zhu H, Qin S, Yao Y, Chen W, Wang X (2015a) Functionalization of bamboo pulp fabrics with noble metal nanoparticles. Dyes Pigments 113:289–298

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Tang B, Yao Y, Li J, Qin S, Zhu H, Kaur J, Chen W, Sun L, Wang X (2015b) Functional application of noble metal nanoparticles in situ synthesized on ramie fibers. Nanoscale Res Lett 10:366

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Tung WS, Daoud WA (2009a) Effect of wettability and silicone surface modification on the self-cleaning functionalization of wool. J Appl Polym Sci 112:235–243

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Tung WS, Daoud WA (2009b) Photocatalytic self-cleaning keratins: a feasibility study. Acta Biomater 5:50–56

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Virk RK, Ramaswamy GN, Bourham M, Bures BL (2004) Plasma and antimicrobial treatment of nonwoven fabrics for surgical gowns. Text Res J 74:1073–1079

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Wang J, Zhao J, Sun L, Wang X (2014) A review on the application of photocatalytic materials on textiles. Text Res J 10:1104–1118

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Yadav A, Prasad V, Kathe A, Raj S, Yadav D, Sundaramoorthy C, Vigneshwaran N (2006) Functional finishing in cotton fabrics using zinc oxide nanoparticles. Bull Mater Sci 29:641–645

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Youssef AM, Abdel-Aziz MS (2013) Preparation of polystyrene nanocomposites based on silver nanoparticles using marine bacterium for packaging. Polym-Plast Technol Eng 52:607–613

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Yuranova T, Rincon AG, Bozzi A, Parra S, Pulgarin C, Albers P, Kiwi J (2013) Antibacterial textiles prepared by RF-plasma and vacuum-UV mediated deposition of silver. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 161:27–34

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgement

This research was financially supported by Deakin University, Australia. The last author would also like to acknowledge support from the Australian Research Council under the Future Fibres Hub project (IH140100018).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lu Sun.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 49 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pakdel, E., Daoud, W.A., Afrin, T. et al. Enhanced antimicrobial coating on cotton and its impact on UV protection and physical characteristics. Cellulose 24, 4003–4015 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-017-1374-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial property
  • Cotton
  • TiO2
  • Silver
  • Sol–gel
  • UPF