, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 693–704 | Cite as

The nanocellulose biorefinery: woody versus herbaceous agricultural wastes for NCC production

  • Araceli GarcíaEmail author
  • Jalel Labidi
  • Mohamed Naceur Belgacem
  • Julien BrasEmail author
Original Paper


In the present work two agricultural residues (apple tree pruning and pea stalks) were studied as sources of nanocellulose. Different pretreatments that might be used in a biorefinery were applied to these lignocellulosic materials: autohydrolysis, organosolv (acetosolv) and alkaline pretreatments. After conventional bleaching, the resulting cellulosic fractions were submitted to a classical acid hydrolysis for nanocellulose crystal (NCC) production. The results showed that after applying different pretreatments, the resulting NCCs had different lengths (from 300 to 676 nm), surface charges (from 17 to 98 μmol acid groups/g NCC), purity (from 0.3 to 11.6% w/w of inorganics), crystallinity indexes and even allomorphism. These results highlighted the importance that cellulose source and particularly the applied pretreatments have on nanocrystal properties and suggest how biorefining pathways for lignocellulosic materials could customize such NCC features as surface reactivity or suitability for chemical modification.


Cellulose nanocrystals Organosolv Crystallinity Surface charge Allomorphism Lignocellulosic biomass 



Authors thank the Department of Education, Universities and Investigation of the Basque Government (Postdoctoral Development Program) for financially supporting this work. LGP2 is part of the LabEx Tec 21 (Investissements d’Avenir—Grant Agreement No. ANR-11-LABX-0030) and of the Énergies du Futur and PolyNat Carnot Institutes (Investissements d’Avenir—Grant Agreements Nos. ANR-11-CARN-007-01 and ANR-11-CARN-030-01).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Université Grenoble AlpesLaboratory of Pulp and Paper Science and Graphic Arts (LGP2)GrenobleFrance
  2. 2.Department of Chemical and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)Donostia-San SebastiánSpain
  3. 3.Université Grenoble AlpesCentre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)GrenobleFrance
  4. 4.Institut Universitaire de France (IUF)ParisFrance

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