, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 2971–2987 | Cite as

Grinding process for the production of nanofibrillated cellulose based on unbleached and bleached bamboo organosolv pulp

  • Viviane da Costa CorreiaEmail author
  • Valdemir dos Santos
  • Mohini Sain
  • Sergio Francisco Santos
  • Alcides Lopes Leão
  • Holmer Savastano Junior
Original Paper


Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) is a type of nanomaterial based on renewable resources and produced by mechanical disintegration without chemicals. NFC is a potential reinforcing material with a high surface area and high aspect ratio, both of which increase reinforcement on the nanoscale. The raw materials used were unbleached and bleached bamboo organosolv pulp. Organosolv pulping is a cleaner process than other industrial methods (i.e. Kraft process), as it uses organic solvents during cooking and provides easy solvent recovery at the end of the process. The NFC was produced by treating unbleached and bleached bamboo organosolv pulps for 5, 10, 15 and 20 nanofibrillation cycles using the grinding method. Chemical, physical and mechanical tests were performed to determine the optimal condition for nanofibrillation. The delamination of the S2 layer of the fibers during nanofibrillation contributed to the partial removal of amorphous components (mainly lignin), which have low polarity and improved the adhesion of the fibers, particularly the unbleached cellulose. The transverse modulus of elasticity of the unbleached NFC was highest after 10 nanofibrillation cycles. Further treatment cycles decreased the modulus due to the mechanical degradation of the fibers. The unbleached NFC produced by 10 cycles have a greater transverse modulus of elasticity, the crystallite size showed increase with the nanofibrillation, and after 5 nanofibrillation cycles, no differences are observed in the morphology of the fibers.


Nanofibrillation Cellulose Grinding Reinforcement 



The authors were supported by Grants offered by Research Foundation of the Sao Paulo State - FAPESP, Brazil (Grants no: 2011/01128-5; 2013/50790-8; 2013/23810-8; 2009/17293-5 and 2010/16524-0) and National Council for Scientific and Technological Development – CNPq, Brazil (Grants no: 142082/2011-2 and 306386/2013-5). The authors also acknowledge the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), Canada, and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), Brazil; Research Nucleus on Material for Biosystems (NAP-BIOSMAT, Grant no. USP 12.1.17620.1.9), Brazil; Canadian Bureau for International Education – CBIE, Canada and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) by funding.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Viviane da Costa Correia
    • 1
    Email author
  • Valdemir dos Santos
    • 1
  • Mohini Sain
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Sergio Francisco Santos
    • 5
  • Alcides Lopes Leão
    • 6
  • Holmer Savastano Junior
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Animal Science and Food EngineeringUniversity of São PauloPirassunungaBrazil
  2. 2.Centre for Biocomposites and Biomaterials Processing, Faculty of ForestryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Division of Materials ScienceLuleå University of TechnologyLuleåSweden
  4. 4.Centre of Advanced ChemistryKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Department of Materials and Technology, Faculty of EngineeringSão Paulo State UniversityGuaratinguetáBrazil
  6. 6.Department of Rural EngineeringSao Paulo State UniversityBotucatuBrazil

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