, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 3089–3095 | Cite as

Cold pad-batch dyeing of cellulose nanofibers with reactive dyes

  • Zeeshan KhatriEmail author
  • Farooq Ahmed
  • Abdul Khaliq Jhatial
  • Muhammad Ishaque Abro
  • Gopiraman Mayakrishnan
  • Ick-Soo KimEmail author
Original Paper


The dyeability of electrospun nanofibers for apparel application has recently gained substantial interest. Past work focused on batchwise and continuous dyeing methods, but they required a certain temperature for dye fixation. We report on the dyeing of cellulose nanofibers by the cold pad-batch method, which offers the most economical and convenient method of dyeing cellulosic nanofibers with reactive dyes. Cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning and then deacetylated to convert CA into cellulose nanofiber. The cellulose nanofiber webs were dyed with three different classes of reactive dyes. CI Reactive Black 5 obtained the highest color yield in comparison to CI Reactive Red 195 and CI Reactive Blue 19. The dye fixation for all dyes achieved between 80 and 85 %. Except color fastness to light, washing fastness of dyed cellulose nanofibers obtained very good to excellent results. To investigate the chemical structure and fiber morphology of the cellulose nanofibers, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used respectively.

Graphical Abstract


Cellulose nanofibers Electrospinning Cold pad-batch Reactive dyeing Color yield 



This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for the Global COE Program by the Ministry of Education, Culture Sports Science, and Technology, Japan.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zeeshan Khatri
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Farooq Ahmed
    • 1
  • Abdul Khaliq Jhatial
    • 1
  • Muhammad Ishaque Abro
    • 1
    • 3
  • Gopiraman Mayakrishnan
    • 2
  • Ick-Soo Kim
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Nanomaterials Research Group, Department of Textile EngineeringMehran University of Engineering and TechnologyJamshoroPakistan
  2. 2.Nano Fusion Technology Research Laboratory, Division of Frontier Fibers, Institute for Fiber Engineering (IFES), Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research (ICCER)Shinshu UniversityUedaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Metallurgy and Materials EngineeringMehran University of Engineering and TechnologyJamshoroPakistan

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