This study investigated the stability of the primary blood typing antibodies (Anti-A, Anti-B and Anti-D IgM) on paper. This knowledge is critical to manufacture a new type of paper-based blood typing device where blood group antibodies must be kept active on paper for extended periods. Two strategies were explored. The first involved mixing additives such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), dextran and glycerol, with antibodies before sorption onto paper. While all the additives tested improved the antibody stability on paper, their protection for storage at room temperature was limited; dextran provided the longest protection, followed by PVP and then glycerol. The second strategy relied on freeze-drying to stabilize the antibodies in paper. Freeze dried antibodies sorbed into paper could be stored for long periods at ambient conditions without significantly loss of their activity. The thermal stability of antibodies in paper was also improved by freeze-drying. Our work shows that the use of additives and freeze-drying are effective approaches to retain the activities of IgM blood group antibodies on paper. These approaches will be further explored for the large scale development of a new generation of clinical and home-care blood testing devices.
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This work is supported by Australian Research Council Grant (ARC DP1094179 and LP 110200973). Authors thank Haemokinesis for its support through ARC Linkage Project and Mr Hansen Shen for proof reading the manuscript. Postgraduate research scholarships from Monash Institute of Graduate Research and Faculty of Engineering are gratefully acknowledged.
Liyun Guan and Rong Cao have contributed equally to this work.
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Guan, L., Cao, R., Tian, J. et al. A preliminary study on the stabilization of blood typing antibodies sorbed into paper. Cellulose 21, 717–727 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-013-0134-x
- Paper-based diagnostic devices
- Blood typing
- Antibody activity
- Freeze drying