, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 291–299 | Cite as

Properties of poly(acrylamide)/TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibril composite films

Original Paper


Self-standing composite films consisting of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl-oxidized cellulose nanofibril (TOCN) and anionic poly(acrylamide) (PAM) in various weight ratios were prepared by casting and drying of homogeneous mixtures of aqueous TOCN dispersion and PAM solution. PAM/TOCN composite films consisting of 25 % PAM and 75 % TOCN had clearly higher Young’s modulus (13.9 GPa) and tensile strength (266 MPa) than 100 % TOCN film (10.8 GPa and 223 MPa, respectively) or 100 % PAM film (4.9 GPa and 78 MPa, respectively), showing that PAM molecules have mechanical reinforcement ability in TOCN matrix. Some attractive interactions are likely formed between TOCN element surfaces and PAM molecules. In contrast, no such mechanical improvements were observed for poly(vinyl alcohol)/TOCN or oxidized starch/TOCN composite films prepared as references. Moreover, the mechanical properties of the PAM/TOCN composite films were further improved by controlling molecular mass and branching degree of the PAM. The high optical transparency and low coefficient of thermal expansion of the 100 % TOCN film were mostly maintained in the TOCN composite film containing 25 % PAM.


TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibril Poly(acrylamide) Composite film Mechanical properties Mechanical reinforcement 



This research was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Grant No. 21228007) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Agricultural and Life SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.R&D CompanyHarima Chemicals Inc.KakogawaJapan

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