*Amaresha, A. C., Kalmady, S. V., Joseph, B., Agarwal, S. M., Narayanaswamy, J. C., Venkatasubramanian, G., et al. (2018). Short term effects of brief need based psychoeducation on knowledge, self-stigma, and burden among siblings of persons with schizophrenia: A prospective controlled trial. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 32, 59–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2017.11.030.
American Psychological Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Avcıoğlu, M. M., Karanci, A. N., & Soygur, H. (2019). What is related to the well-being of the siblings of patients with schizophrenia: An evaluation within the Lazarus and Folkman’s Transactional Stress and Coping Model. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 65(3), 252–261. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764019840061.
*Barak, D., & Solomon, Z. (2005). In the shadow of schizophrenia: A study of siblings' perceptions. Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 42(4), 234.
*Barnett, R. A., & Hunter, M. (2012). Adjustment of siblings of children with mental health problems: Behaviour, self-concept, quality of life and family functioning. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21(2), 262–272. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-011-9471-2.
*Barrett, P. M., Fox, T., & Farrell, L. J. (2005). Parent—Child interactions with anxious children and with their siblings: An observational study. Behaviour Change, 22(4), 220–235. https://doi.org/10.1375/bech.22.4.220.
*Barrett, P., Healy-Farrell, L., & March, J. S. (2004). Cognitive-behavioral family treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: A controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(1), 46–62. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200401000-00014.
Baxter, L. A. (2004). A tale of two voices: Relational dialectics theory. Journal of Family Communication, 4(3–4), 181–192. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327698jfc0403&4_5.
*Bowman, S., Alvarez-Jimenez, M., Wade, D., Howie, L., & McGorry, P. (2014). The impact of first episode psychosis on sibling quality of life. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(7), 1071–1081. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-013-0817-5.
Chen, W. Y., & Lukens, E. (2011). Well being, depressive symptoms, and burden among parent and sibling caregivers of persons with severe and persistent mental illness. Social Work in Mental Health, 9(6), 397–416. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332985.2011.575712.
Cicirelli, V. G. (1995). Sibling relationships across the life span. New York: Plenum Press.
Corrigan, P. W., & Miller, F. E. (2004). Shame, blame, and contamination: A review of the impact of mental illness stigma on family members. Journal of Mental Health, 13(6), 537–548. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638230400017004.
*Deal, S. N., & MacLean, W. E., Jr. (1995). Disrupted lives: Siblings of disturbed adolescents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 65(2), 274–281. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0079616.
DeLisi, L. E., Goldin, L. R., Maxwell, M. E., Kazuba, D. M., & Gershon, E. S. (1987). Clinical features of illness in siblings with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44(10), 891–896. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800220057009.
*Dia, D. A., & Harrington, D. (2006). What about me? Siblings of children with an anxiety disorder. Social Work Research, 30(3), 183–188. https://doi.org/10.1093/swr/30.3.183.
Emerson, E. (2003). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with and without intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47, 51–58. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2788.2003.00464.x.
Erickson, D. H., Beiser, M., & Iacono, W. G. (1998). Social support predict 5-year outcome in 1st-episode schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107(4), 681–685. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843x.107.4.681.
Flood-Grady, E., & Koenig Kellas, J. (2018). Sense-making, socialization, and stigma: Exploring narratives told in families about mental illness. Health Communication. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2018.1431016.
*Fox, T. L., Barrett, P. M., & Shortt, A. L. (2002). Sibling relationships of anxious children: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31(3), 375–383. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3103_09.
*Friedrich, R. M., Lively, S., & Rubenstein, L. M. (2008). Siblings' coping strategies and mental health services: A national study of siblings of persons with schizophrenia. Psychiatric Services, 59(3), 261–267. https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.2008.59.3.261.
Gerson, L. D., & Rose, L. E. (2012). Needs of persons with serious mental illness following discharge from inpatient treatment: Patient and family views. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 26(4), 261–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2012.02.002.
Goetting, A. (1986). The developmental tasks of siblingship over the life cycle. Journal of Marriage and the Family. https://doi.org/10.2307/352563.
Graves, J. M., Marsack-Topolewski, C. N., & Shapiro, J. (2020). Emerging adult siblings of individuals with schizophrenia: Experiences with family crisis. Journal of Family Issues. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513x20905327.
*Greenberg, J. S., Kim, H. W., & Greenley, J. R. (1997). Factors associated with subjective burden in siblings of adults with severe mental illness. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67(2), 231–241. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0080226.
Greenberg, J. S., Seltzer, M. M., Krauss, M. W., Chou, R. J. A., & Hong, J. (2004). The effect of quality of the relationship between mothers and adult children with schizophrenia, autism, or Down syndrome on maternal well-being: The mediating role of optimism. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74(1), 14–25. https://doi.org/10.1037/0002-94220.127.116.11.
*Greenberg, J. S., Seltzer, M. M., Orsmond, G. I., & Krauss, M. W. (1999). Siblings of adults with mental illness or mental retardation: Current involvement and expectation of future caregiving. Psychiatric Services, 50(9), 1214–1219. https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.50.9.1214.
Griffiths, C., & Sin, J. (2013). Rethinking siblings and mental illness. The Psychologist, 26(11), 808–810.
Guarnaccia, P. J., & Parra, P. (1996). Ethnicity, social status, and families' experiences of caring for a mentally ill family member. Community Mental Health Journal, 32(3), 243–260. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02249426.
Heston, L. L. (1966). Psychiatric disorders in foster home reared children of schizophrenic mothers. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 112(489), 819–825. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.112.489.819.
Higgins, J. P., Thomas, J., Chandler, J., Cumpston, M., Li, T., Page, M. J., et al., & Welch, V. A. (Eds.). (2019). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Hoboken: Wiley.
*Hoover, C. F., & Franz, J. D. (1972). Siblings in the families of schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26(4), 334–342. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1972.01750220044009.
*Horwitz, A. V. (1993). Adult siblings as sources of social support for the seriously mentally ill: A test of the serial model. Journal of Marriage and the Family. https://doi.org/10.2307/353343.
Horwitz, A. V. (1994). Predictors of adult sibling social support for the seriously mentally III: An exploratory study. Journal of Family Issues, 15(2), 272–289. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513x94015002007.
*Horwitz, A. V., & Reinhard, S. C. (1995). Ethnic differences in caregiving duties and burdens among parents and siblings of persons with severe mental illnesses. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. https://doi.org/10.2307/2137221.
*Horwitz, A. V., Tessler, R. C., Fisher, G. A., & Gamache, G. M. (1992). The role of adult siblings in providing social support to the severely mentally ill. Journal of Marriage and the Family. https://doi.org/10.2307/353290.
Hudson, J. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2002). Parent–child interactions in clinically anxious children and their siblings. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31(4), 548–555. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3104_13.
*Jacoby, R. J., & Heatherington, L. (2016). Growing up with an anxious sibling: Psychosocial correlates and predictors of sibling relationship quality. Current Psychology, 35(1), 57–68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-015-9360-8.
*Jewell, T. C., & Stein, C. H. (2002). Parental influence on sibling caregiving for people with severe mental illness. Community Mental Health Journal, 38(1), 17–33. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1013903813940.
Johnson, E. D. (2000). Differences among families coping with serious mental illness: A qualitative analysis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(1), 126–134. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0087664.
*Kageyama, M., & Solomon, P. (2019). Physical violence experienced and witnessed by siblings of persons with schizophrenia in Japan. International Journal of Mental Health, 48(1), 2–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207411.2018.1563462.
*Kelvin, R. G., Goodyer, I. M., & Altham, P. M. E. (1996). Temperament and psychopathology amongst siblings of probands with depressive and anxiety disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37(5), 543–550. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1996.tb01440.x.
Kinsella, K. B., Anderson, R. A., & Anderson, W. T. (1996). Coping skills, strengths, and needs as perceived by adult offspring and siblings of people with mental illness: A retrospective study. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 20(2), 24. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0095388.
Kmet, L. M., Cook, L. S., & Lee, R. C. (2004). Standard quality assessment criteria for evaluating primary research papers from a variety of fields. Heslington: University of York.
Kovacs, T., Possick, C., & Buchbinder, E. (2019). Experiencing the relationship with a sibling coping with mental health problems: Dilemmas of connection, communication, and role. Health & social care in the community, 27(5), 1185–1192. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12761.
*Landeen, J., Whelton, C., Dermer, S., Cardamone, J., Munroe-Blum, H., & Thornton, J. (1992). Needs of well siblings of persons with schizophrenia. Psychiatric Services, 43(3), 266–269. https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.43.3.266.
*Laporte, L., Paris, J., Guttman, H., & Russell, J. (2011). Psychopathology, childhood trauma, and personality traits in patients with borderline personality disorder and their sisters. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25(4), 448–462. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2011.25.4.448.
*Latzer, Y., Katz, R., & Berger, K. (2015). Psychological distress among sisters of young females with eating disorders: The role of negative sibling relationships and sense of coherence. Journal of Family Issues, 36(5), 626–646. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513x13487672.
*Leith, J. E., Jewell, T. C., & Stein, C. H. (2018). Caregiving attitudes, personal loss, and stress-related growth among siblings of adults with mental illness. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27(4), 1193–1206. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0965-4.
*Leith, J. E., & Stein, C. H. (2012). The role of personal loss in the caregiving experiences of well siblings of adults with serious mental illness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(10), 1075–1088. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21881.
Lidz, T., Fleck, S., Alanen, Y. O., & Cornelison, A. (1963). Schizophrenic patients and their siblings. Psychiatry, 26(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/00332747.1963.11023334.
*Lively, S., Friedrich, R. M., & Buckwalter, K. C. (1995). Sibling perception of schizophrenia: Impact on relationships, roles, and health. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 16(3), 225–238. https://doi.org/10.3109/01612849509006937.
*Lively, S., Friedrich, R. M., & Rubenstein, L. (2004). The effect of disturbing illness behaviors on siblings of persons with schizophrenia. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 10(5), 222–232. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078390304269497.
*Lohrer, S. P., Lukens, E. P., & Thorning, H. (2002). Evaluating awareness of New York’s assisted outpatient treatment law among adult siblings of persons with mental illness. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 8(6), 365–369. https://doi.org/10.1097/00131746-200211000-00006.
*Lohrer, S. P., Lukens, E. P., & Thorning, H. (2007). Economic expenditures associated with instrumental caregiving roles of adult siblings of persons with severe mental illness. Community Mental Health Journal, 43(2), 129–151. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-005-9026-3.
Markowitz, F. E., Angell, B., & Greenberg, J. S. (2011). Stigma, reflected appraisals, and recovery outcomes in mental illness. Social Psychology Quarterly, 74(2), 144–165. https://doi.org/10.1177/0190272511407620.
McCann, T. V., Bamberg, J., & McCann, F. (2015). Family carers' experience of caring for an older parent with severe and persistent mental illness. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 24(3), 203–212. https://doi.org/10.1111/inm.12135.
Meyer, D. J., & Vadasy, P. F. (1994). Sibshops: Workshops for siblings of children with special needs. Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes Publishing.
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & Prisma Group. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6(7), e1000097. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097.
Moreno-Küstner, B., Martin, C., & Pastor, L. (2018). Prevalence of psychotic disorders and its association with methodological issues. A systematic review and meta-analyses. PLoS ONE, 13(4), e0195687. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195687.
*Moulds, M. L., Touyz, S. W., Schotte, D., Beumont, P. J., Griffiths, R., Russell, J., et al. (2000). Perceived expressed emotion in the siblings and parents of hospitalized patients with anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 27(3), 288–296. https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1098-108x(200004)27:3<288:aid-eat5>3.0.co;2-7.
National Institute of Mental Health. (2013, February 4). The numbers count: Mental disorders in America. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/the-numbers-count-mental-disorders-in-america/index.shtml.
*Oliver, J. M., Handal, P. J., Finn, T., & Herdy, S. (1987). Depressed and nondepressed students and their siblings in frequent contact with their families: Depression and perceptions of the family. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 11(4), 501–515. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01175359.
*Östman, M., Wallsten, T., & Kjellin, L. (2005). Family burden and relatives' participation in psychiatric care: Are the patient's diagnosis and the relation to the patient of importance? International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 51(4), 291–301. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764005057395.
Rüsch, N., Angermeyer, M. C., & Corrigan, P. W. (2005). Mental illness stigma: Concepts, consequences, and initiatives to reduce stigma. European Psychiatry, 20(8), 529–539. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2005.04.004.
*Samuels, L., & Chase, L. (1979). The well siblings of schizophrenics. American Journal of Family Therapy, 7(2), 24–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/01926187908250313.
*Sanders, A., & Szymanski, K. (2012). Emotional intelligence in siblings of patients diagnosed with a mental disorder. Social Work in Mental Health, 10(4), 331–342. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332985.2012.660304.
*Sanders, A., & Szymanski, K. (2013a). Having a mentally ill sibling: Implications for attachment with parental figures. Social Work in Mental Health, 11(6), 516–529. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332985.2013.792312.
*Sanders, A., & Szymanski, K. (2013b). Siblings of people diagnosed with a mental disorder and posttraumatic growth. Community Mental Health Journal, 49(5), 554–559. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-012-9498-x.
*Sanders, A., Szymanski, K., & Fiori, K. (2014). The family roles of siblings of people diagnosed with a mental disorder: Heroes and lost children. International Journal of Psychology, 49(4), 257–262. https://doi.org/10.1037/e644732012-001.
Sariaslan, A., Larsson, H., & Fazel, S. (2016). Genetic and environmental determinants of violence risk in psychotic disorders: A multivariate quantitative genetic study of 1.8 million Swedish twins and siblings. Molecular Psychiatry, 21(9), 1251–1256. https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2015.184.
Saunders, J. C. (2003). Families living with severe mental illness: A literature review. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 24(2), 175–198. https://doi.org/10.1080/01612840305301.
Seltzer, M. M., Greenberg, J. S., Floyd, F. J., & Hong, J. (2004). Accommodative coping and well-being of midlife parents of children with mental health problems or developmental disabilities. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74(2), 187–195. https://doi.org/10.1037/0002-9418.104.22.168.
*Seltzer, M. M., Greenberg, J. S., Krauss, M. W., Gordon, R. M., & Judge, K. (1997). Siblings of adults with mental retardation or mental illness: Effects on lifestyle and psychological well-being. Family Relations. https://doi.org/10.2307/585099.
Settersten, R. A. (2003). Age structuring and the rhythm of the life course. In R. H. Binstock & L. K. George (Eds.), Handbook of the life course (pp. 81–98). Boston, MA: Springer.
*Sin, J., Murrells, T., Spain, D., Norman, I., & Henderson, C. (2016). Wellbeing, mental health knowledge and caregiving experiences of siblings of people with psychosis, compared to their peers and parents: An exploratory study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 51(9), 1247–1255. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-016-1222-7.
*Smith, M. J., & Greenberg, J. S. (2008). Factors contributing to the quality of sibling relationships for adults with schizophrenia. Psychiatric Services, 59(1), 57–62. https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.2008.59.1.57.
*Smith, M. J., Greenberg, J. S., Sciortino, S. A., Sandoval, G. M., & Lukens, E. P. (2016). Life course challenges faced by siblings of individuals with schizophrenia may increase risk for depressive symptoms. Mental Health in Family Medicine, 12(1), 147–151. https://doi.org/10.25149/1756-8358.1201003.
*Smith, M. J., Greenberg, J. S., & Seltzer, M. M. (2007). Siblings of adults with schizophrenia: Expectations about future caregiving roles. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(1), 29–37. https://doi.org/10.1037/0002-9422.214.171.124.
Smith, M. M., Pereira, S. P., Chan, L., Rose, C., & Shafran, R. (2018). Impact of well-being interventions for siblings of children and young people with a chronic physical or mental health condition: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 21(2), 246–265. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-018-0253-x.
Stuart, H. (2006). Media portrayal of mental illness and its treatments. CNS Drugs, 20(2), 99–106. https://doi.org/10.2165/00023210-200620020-00002.
*Tanaka, K. (2008). Siblings of persons with serious mental illness: Resilience and support. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 3(7), 167–177. https://doi.org/10.18848/1833-1882/cgp/v03i07/52663.
*Tanaka, K. (2010). Resilience among siblings of persons with serious mental illness: A cross-national comparison. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 4(12), 61–74. https://doi.org/10.18848/1833-1882/cgp/v04i12/53045.
*Tanaka, K. (2011). Positive experiences of siblings of persons with major mental illness: Self development and support. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 5(11), 75–89. https://doi.org/10.18848/1833-1882/cgp/v05i11/51939.
*Tatay-Manteiga, A., Cauli, O., Tabarés-Seisdedos, R., Michalak, E. E., Kapczinski, F., & Balanzá-Martínez, V. (2019). Subjective neurocognition and quality of life in patients with bipolar disorder and siblings. Journal of Affective Disorders, 245, 283–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.11.012.
*Taylor, J. L., Greenberg, J. S., Seltzer, M. M., & Floyd, F. J. (2008). Siblings of adults with mild intellectual deficits or mental illness: Differential life course outcomes. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(6), 905–914. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012603.
*Tschan, T., Lüdtke, J., Schmid, M., & In-Albon, T. (2019). Sibling relationships of female adolescents with nonsuicidal self-injury disorder in comparison to a clinical and a nonclinical control group. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 13(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-019-0275-2.
*van Dijk, F. A., Schirmbeck, F., Boyette, L.-L., & de Haan, L. (2019). Coping styles mediate the association between negative life events and subjective well-being in patients with non-affective psychotic disorders and their siblings. Psychiatry Research, 272, 296–303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.020.
*van Langenberg, T., Sawyer, S. M., Le Grange, D., & Hughes, E. K. (2016). Psychosocial well-being of siblings of adolescents with anorexia nervosa. European Eating Disorders Review, 24(6), 438–445. https://doi.org/10.1002/erv.2469.
Waller, S., Reupert, A., Ward, B., McCormick, F., & Kidd, S. (2019). Family-focused recovery: Perspectives from individuals with a mental illness. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 28, 247–255. https://doi.org/10.1111/inm.12528.
Weissman, M. M., & Siegel, R. (1972). The depressed woman and her rebellious adolescent. Social Casework, 53(9), 563–570. https://doi.org/10.1177/104438947205300906.
*Wolfe, B., Song, J., Greenberg, J. S., & Mailick, M. R. (2014). Ripple effects of developmental disabilities and mental illness on nondisabled adult siblings. Social Science & Medicine, 108, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.01.021.
*Zauszniewski, J. A., & Bekhet, A. K. (2014). Factors associated with the emotional distress of women family members of adults with serious mental illness. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 28(2), 102–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2013.11.003.
Zauszniewski, J. A., Bekhet, A. K., & Suresky, M. J. (2010). Indicators of resilience in family members of persons with serious mental illness. Nursing Clinics, 45(4), 613–626. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2014.11.009.