A growing body of research explores the ways in which regulatory skills are important contributors to school readiness, school success, and other positive developmental outcomes in childhood and throughout the lifespan. Research and theory suggest that children with strong regulatory skills may be better equipped to manage the complex academic, social, and emotional demands of early learning and school environments; and alternatively, deficits in regulatory skills can lead to problems in school adjustment, academic outcomes, and other measures of well-being. In this paper, we bring together two regulation-related research traditions: executive function (EF) and effortful control (EC). We highlight the common features of EF and EC and their key differences. Building on findings from these two research traditions, we propose an integrated model of regulation for school-based interventions and other applied settings that can serve as an organizing framework for a broad set of skills across the cognitive, social, and emotion domains that are critical to school success. Using a developmental psychopathology framework, we illustrate how an integrated model of regulation can inform more nuanced and targeted approaches to research, policy, and intervention for both special and universal populations. We end the paper with a set of recommendations for the next decade of developmental and prevention research focused on self-regulation.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ahmed, S. F., Tang, S., Waters, N. E., & Davis-Kean, P. (2018). Executive function and academic achievement: Longitudinal relations from early childhood to adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. Retrieved from, http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2018-40025-001.
Allan, N. P., & Lonigan, C. P. (2011). Examining the dimensionality of effortful control in preschool children and its relation to academic and socioemotional indicators. Developmental Psychology, 47(4), 905–915.
Anderson, P. (2002). Assessment and development of executive function (EF) during childhood. Child Neuropsychology, 8(2), 71–82.
Baddeley, A. D. (1986). Working memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. J. (1974). Working memory. In G. A. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol (8, pp. 47–89). New York: Academic Press.
Bailey, R., Barnes, S. P., Park, C., Sokolovic, N., & Jones, S. M. (2018). Executive function mapping project measures compendium: A resource for selecting measures related to executive function and other regulation-related skills in early childhood. OPRE Report # 2018-59. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Bandura, A. (2005). The primacy of self-regulation in health promotion. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54(2), 245–254.
Best, J. R., & Miller, P. H. (2010). A developmental perspective on executive function. Child Development, 81(6), 1641–1660.
Best, J. R., Miller, P. H., & Naglieri, J. A. (2011). Relations between executive function and academic achievement from ages 5 to 17 in a large, representative national sample. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(4), 327–336.
Blair, C. (2002). School readiness: Integrating cognition and emotion in a neurobiological conceptualization of children’s functioning at school entry. The American Psychologist, 57(2), 111–127.
Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2012). Child development in the context of adversity: Experiential canalization of brain and behavior. American Psychologist, 67(4), 309–318.
Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2016). Poverty, stress, and brain development: New directions for prevention and intervention. Academic Pediatrics, 16(3 Suppl), S30–S36.
Blair, C., & Razza, R. P. (2007). Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Development, 78(2), 647–663.
Blair, C., & Ursache, A. (2011). A bidirectional model of executive functions and self-regulation. In K. D. Vohs & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 300–320). New York: Guilford Press.
Blair, C., Zelazo, P. D., & Greenberg, M. T. (2005). The measurement of executive function in early childhood. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28(2), 561–571.
Blakemore, S. J., & Choudhury, S. (2006). Development of the adolescent brain: Implications for executive function and social cognition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(3/4), 296–312.
Boekaerts, M., Maes, S., & Karoly, P. (2005). Self-regulation across domains of applied psychology: Is there an emerging consensus? Applied Psychology, 54(2), 149–154.
Bornstein, M. H., Hahn, C. S., & Haynes, O. M. (2010). Social competence, externalizing, and internalizing behavioral adjustment from early childhood through early adolescence: developmental cascades. Development and Psychopathology, 22(4), 717–735.
Bos, K. J., Fox, N., Zeanah, C. H., & Nelson, C. A. (2009). Effects of early psychosocial deprivation on the development of memory and executive function. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 3, 16.
Boyce, W. T., & Ellis, B. J. (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: An evolutionary-developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 271–301.
Brocki, K. C., & Bohlin, G. (2004). Executive function in children aged 6 to 13: A dimensional and developmental study. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26(2), 571–593.
Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (2006). The bioecological model of human development. In R. Lerner & W. Damon (Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 1: Theoretical Models of Human Development (6th edn., pp. 793–828). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Bronson, M. B. (2001). Self-regulation in early childhood: Nature and nurture. New York: Guilford.
Buckner, J. C., Mezzacappa, E., & Beardslee, W. R. (2003). Characteristics of resilient youths living in poverty: The role of self-regulatory processes. Development and Psychopathology, 15(1), 139–162.
Bull, R., Espy, K., & Wiebe, S. (2008). Short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschoolers: Longitudinal predictors of mathematical achievement at age 7 years. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33(3), 205–228.
Calkins, S. D., & Fox, N. A. (2002). Self-regulatory processes in early personality development: A multilevel approach to the study of childhood social withdrawal and aggression. Development and Psychopathology, 14(3), 477–498.
Carlson, S. M. (2005). Developmentally sensitive measures of executive function in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28(2), 595–616.
Carlson, S. M., Davis, A. C., & Leach, J. G. (2005). Less is more: Executive function and symbolic representation in preschool children. Psychological Science, 16(8), 609–616.
Carlson, S. M., & Moses, L. J. (2001). Individual differences in inhibitory control and children’s theory of mind. Child Development, 72(4), 1032–1053.
Caspi, A., & Silva, P. A. (1995). Temperamental qualities at age three predict personality traits in young adulthood: Longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort. Child Development, 66(2), 486–498.
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2011). Building the Brain’s “Air Traffic Control” System: How Early Experiences Shape the Development of Executive Function: Working Paper No. 11. Retrieved from http://www.developingchild.harvard.edu.
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2002). A developmental psychopathology perspective on adolescence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(1), 6–20.
Components of social, emotional, and intellectual habits (2017). Connecticut core standards, department of education. Retrieved from, http://ctcorestandards.org/?page_id=9591.
Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1996). Social information-processing mechanisms in reactive and proactive aggression. Child Development, 67(3), 993–1002.
Crone, E. A. (2009). Executive functions in adolescence: inferences from brain and behavior. Developmental Science, 12(6), 825–830.
Damasio, A. (1999). The feeling of what happens: body and emotion in the making of consciousness. Orlando: Harcourt, Inc.
De Luca, C. R., Wood, S. J., Anderson, V., Buchanan, J., Proffitt, T. M., Mahoney, K., & Pantelis, C. (2003). Normative data from the Cantab: Development of executive function over the lifespan. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25(2), 242–254.
Derryberry, D., & Rothbart, M. K. (1997). Reactive and effortful processes in the organization of temperament. Development and Psychopathology, 9(4), 633–652.
[DHHS/ACF/OHS] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Head Start (2015). Head start early learning outcomes framework. Retrieved from, https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/school-readiness/article/head-start-early-learning-outcomes-framework.
Diamond, A. (2002). Normal development of prefrontal cortex from birth to young adulthood: Cognitive functions, anatomy, and biochemistry. In D. T. Stuss & R. T. Knight (Eds.), Principles of frontal lobe function (pp. 466–503). New York: Oxford University Press.
Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135–168.
Diamond, A., Barnett, W. S., Thomas, J., & Munro, S. (2007). Preschool program improves cognitive control. Science, 318(5855), 1387–1388.
Diamond, A., & Lee, K. (2011). Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4–12 years old. Science, 333(6045), 959–964.
Diamond, A., & Taylor, C. (1996). Development of an aspect of executive control: Development of the abilities to remember what I said and to “Do as I say, not as I do. Developmental Psychobiology, 29(4), 315–334.
Duckworth, A. L., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Psychological Science, 16(12), 939–944.
Dumontheil, I. (2016). Adolescent brain development. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 10, 39–44.
Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A. C., Klebanov, P., … Japel, C. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1428–1446.
Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A. J., Spinrad, T. L., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S. A., Reiser, M., … Guthrie, I. K. (2001a). The relations of regulation and emotionality to children’s externalizing and internalizing problem behavior. Child Development, 72(4), 1112–1134.
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Murphy, B., Maszk, P., Smith, M., & Karbon, M. (1995). The role of emotionality and regulation in children’s social functioning: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 66(5), 1360–1384.
Eisenberg, N., Gershoff, E. T., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S. A., Cumberland, A. J., Losoya, S. H., … Murphy, B. C. (2001b). Mother’s emotional expressivity and children’s behavior problems and social competence: Mediation through children’s regulation. Developmental Psychology, 37(4), 475–490.
Eisenberg, N., Sadovsky, A., & Spinrad, T. (2005). Associations among emotion-related regulation, language skills, emotion knowledge, and academic outcomes. New Directions in Child and Adolescent Development, 109, 109–118.
Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., Fabes, R. A., Reiser, M., Cumberland, A., Shephard, S. A., … Thompson, M. (2004). The relations of effortful control and impulsivity to children’s resiliency and adjustment. Child Development, 75(1), 25–46.
Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., Fabes, R. A., Smith, C. L., Reiser, M., Shephard, S. A., … Cumberland, A. J. (2003). The relations of effortful control and ego control to children’s resiliency and social functioning. Developmental Psychology, 39(4), 761–776.
Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., Spinrad, T. L., Liew, J., Zhou, Q., Losoya, S. H., … Cumberland, A. (2009). Longitudinal relations of children’s effortful control, impulsivity, and negative emotionality to their externalizing, internalizing, and co-occurring behavior problems. Developmental Psychology, 45(4), 988–1008.
Epsy, K. A., McDiarmid, M. M., Cwik, M. F., Stalets, M. M., Hamby, A., & Senn, T. E. (2004). The contribution of executive functions to emergent mathematic skills in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26(1), 465–486.
Evans, G. W., & English, K. (2002). The environment of poverty: Multiple stressor exposure, psychophysiological stress, and socioemotional adjustment. Child Development, 73(4), 1238–1248.
Farah, M. J., Shera, D. M., Savage, J. H., Betancourt, L., Giannetta, J. M., Brodsky, N. L., … Hurt, H. (2006). Childhood poverty: Specific associations with neurocognitive development. Brain Research, 1110(1), 166–174.
Fitzpatrick, C., & Pagani, L. (2012). Toddler working memory skills predict kindergarten school readiness. Intelligence, 40(2), 205–212.
Fuster, J. M. (2008). The prefrontal cortex (4th edn.). London: Academic Press.
Garon, N., Bryson, S. E., & Smith, I. M. (2008). Executive function in preschoolers: A review using an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 134(1), 31–60.
Gottlieb, G. (2007). Probabilistic epigenesis. Developmental Science, 10(1), 1–11.
Griffin, A. (2017). Adolescent neurological development and implications for health and well-being. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 5(4), 62.
Gunnar, M. (2000). Early adversity and the development of stress reactivity and regulation. In C. A. Nelson (Ed.), The Effects of Adversity on Neurobehavioral Development. The Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology (pp. 163–200). Mahwah: Erlbaum.
Hongwanishkul, D., Happaney, K. R., Lee, W. S., & Zelazo, P. D. (2005). Assessment of hot and cool executive function in young children: Age-related changes and individual differences. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28(2), 617–644.
Howse, R. B., Calkins, S. D., Anastopoulos, A. D., Keane, S. P., & Shelton, T. L. (2003). Regulatory contributors to children’s kindergarten achievement. Early Education and Development, 14(1), 101–119.
Hughes, C. (2011). Changes and challenges in 20 years of research into the development of executive functions. Infant and Child Development, 20(3), 251–271.
Huizinga, M., Dolan, C. V., & van der Molen, M. W. (2006). Age-related change in executive function: Developmental trends and a latent variable analysis. Neuropsychologia, 44(11), 2017–2036.
Huttenlocher, P. R. (1979). Synaptic density in human frontal cortex-developmental changes and effects of aging. Brain Research, 163(2), 195–205.
Iyer, R., Kochenderfer-Ladd, B., Eisenberg, N., Thompson, M., & Ladd, B. K. (2010). Peer victimization and effortful control: Relations to school engagement and academic achievement. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 56(3), 361–387.
Jacob, R., & Parkinson, J. (2015). The potential for school-based interventions that target executive function to improve academic achievement: A review. Review of Educational Research, 85(4), 512–552.
Jennings, P. A., Frank, J. L., Snowberg, K. E., Coccia, M. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2013). Improving classroom learning environments by Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE): Results of a randomized controlled trial. School Psychology Quarterly, 28(4), 374–390.
Jones, S. M., Bailey, R., Barnes, S. P., & Partee, A. (2016). Executive function mapping project: untangling the terms and skills related to executive function and self-regulation in early childhood. OPRE. In Report # 2016-88. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Jones, S. M., Bailey, R., & Partee, A. (2016). How to target intergeneration poverty with a basic life skill. Aspen Journal of Ideas, 2016.
Jones, S. M., & Kahn, J. (2017). The evidence base for how we learn: Supporting students’ social, emotional, and academic development. National Commission on Social, Emotional, and Academic Development, Aspen Institute. Retrieved from, https://www.aspeninstitute.org/publications/evidence-base-learn/.
Karoly, P. (1993). Mechanisms of self-regulation: A systems view. Annual Review of Psychology, 44(1), 23–52.
Kennedy, E. (2013). Orchids and dandelions: How some children are more susceptible to environmental influences for better or worse and the implications for child development. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 18(3), 319–321.
Kishiyama, M. M., Boyce, W. T., Jimenez, A. M., Perry, L. M., & Knight, R. T. (2008). Socioeconomic disparities affect prefrontal function in children. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(6), 1106–1115.
Kochanska, G., & Knaack, A. (2003). Effortful control as a personality characteristic of young children: Antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Personality, 71(6), 1087–1112.
Kochanska, G., Murray, K. T., & Harlan, E. T. (2000). Effortful control in early childhood: Continuity and change, antecedents, and implications for social development. Developmental Psychology, 36(2), 220–232.
Kochanska, G., Murray, K. T., Jacques, T. Y., Koenig, A. L., & Vandegeest, K. A. (1996). Inhibitory control in young children and its role in emerging internalization. Child Development, 67(2), 490–507.
Kopp, C. B. (1982). Antecedents of self-regulation: A developmental perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18(2), 199–214.
Lemerise, E. A., & Arsenio, W. F. (2000). An integrated model of emotion processes and cognition in social information processing. Child Development, 71(1), 107–118.
Lengua, L. J. (2008). Effortful control in the context of socioeconomic and psychosocial risk. Invited paper for the symposium: New Directions in Psychological Science and their Implications for Dissemination. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association’s fourth annual Science Leadership Conference Designing the Future: Innovations in Knowledge Dissemination for Psychological Science, Tempe, AZ.
Lesaux, N. K., Jones, S. M., Bock, K. P., & Harris, J. R. (2015). The regulated learning environment: Supporting adults to support children. Young Children (NAEYC), November 2015.
Liew, J. (2011). Effortful control, executive functions, and education: Bringing self-regulatory and social-emotional competencies to the table. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 105–111.
Lupien, S. J., King, S., Meaney, M. J., & McEwan, B. S. (2001). Can poverty get under your skin? Basal cortisol levels and cognitive function in children from low and high socioeconomic status. Development and Psychopathology, 13(3), 653–676.
Masten, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Developmental cascades. Development and Psychopathology, 22(3), 491–495.
McClelland, M. M., Acock, A. C., & Morrison, F. J. (2006). The impact of kindergarten learning-related skills on academic trajectories at the end of elementary school. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 21(4), 471–490.
McClelland, M. M., Cameron, C. E., Connor, C. M., Farris, C. L., Jewkes, A. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2007). Links between behavioral regulation and preschoolers’ literacy, vocabulary, and math skills. Developmental Psychology, 43(4), 947–959.
Melby-Lervag, M., & Hulme, C. (2013). Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review. Developmental Psychology, 49(2), 270–292.
Metcalfe, J., & Mischel, W. (1999). A hot/cool system analysis of delay of gratification: Dynamics of willpower. Psychological Review, 106(1), 3–19.
Mischel, H. N., & Mischel, W. (1983). The development of children’s knowledge of self-control strategies. Child Development, 54, 603–619.
Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Peake, P. K. (1988). The nature of adolescent competencies predicted by preschool delay of gratification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 687–696.
Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Rodriguez, M. L. (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science, 244(4907), 933–938.
Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41(1), 49–100.
Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H. L., … Caspi, A. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. PNAS, 108(7), 2693–2698.
Morrison, F. J., & Grammer, J. K. (2016). Conceptual clutter and measurement mayhem: Proposals for cross-disciplinary integration in conceptualizing and measuring executive function. In J. A. Griffin, P. McCardle & L. S. Freund (Eds.), Executive function in preschool-age children: Integrating measurement, neurodevelopment, and translational research (pp. 327–348). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Nigg, J. T. (2017). Annual Research Review: On the relations among self-regulation, self-control, executive functioning, effortful control, cognitive control, impulsivity, risk-taking, and inhibition for developmental psychopathology. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Special Issue: Using science to make a difference, 58(4), 361–383.
Noble, K. G. (2014). Rich man, poor man: Socioeconomic adversity and brain development. Cerebrum: The DANA Forum on Brain Science, 2014, 6. Retrieved from, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4436198/.
Noble, K. G., McCandliss, B. D., & Farah, M. J. (2007). Socioeconomic gradients predict individual differences in neurocognitive abilities. Developmental Science, 10(4), 464–480.
Noble, K. G., Norman, M. F., & Farah, M. J. (2005). Neurocognitive correlates of socioeconomic status in kindergarten children. Developmental Science, 8(1), 74–87.
Norman, D. A., & Shallice, T. (1980). Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behavior. In R. J. Davidson, G. E. Schwartz & D. E. Shapiro (Eds.), Consciousness and Self-Regulation (pp. 1–14). Boston: Springer.
Overton, W. F. (2010). Life-span development: Concepts and issues. In W. F. Overton & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), The handbook of life-span development, Vol. 1. Cognition, biology, and methods (pp. 1–29). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Paus, T. (2005). Mapping brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(2), 60–68.
Pennington, B. F., & Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 37(1), 51–87.
Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2000). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation. Development and Psychopathology, 12(3), 427–441.
Putnam, S. P., Rothbart, M. K., & Gartstein, M. A. (2008). Homotypic and heterotypic continuity of fine-grained temperament during infancy, toddlerhood, and early childhood. Infant and Child Development, 17(4), 387–405.
Raver, C. C., Blackburn, E. K., Bancroft, M., & Torp, N. (1999). Relations between effective emotional self-regulation, attentional control, and low-income preschoolers’ social competence with peers. Early Education and Development, 10(3), 333–350.
Raver, C. C., Blair, C., & Willoughby, M. (2013). Poverty as a predictor of 4-year-olds’ executive function: New perspectives on models of differential susceptibility. Developmental Psychology, 49(2), 292–304.
Raver, C. C., Garner, P., & Smith-Donald, R. (2007). The roles of emotion regulation and emotion knowledge for children’s academic readiness: Are the links causal? In R. C. Pianta, M. J. Cox & K. L. Snow (Eds.), School readiness and the transition to kindergarten in the era of accountability (pp. 121–147). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Raver, C. C., Jones, S. M., Li-Grining, C., Zhai, F., Bub, K., & Pressler, E. (2011). CSRP’s impact on low-income preschoolers’ preacademic skills: Self-regulation as a mediating mechanism. Child Development, 82(1), 362–378.
Reynolds, A. J., Temple, J. A., Ou, S. R., Arteaga, I. A., & White, B. A. B. (2011). School-based early childhood education and age-28 well-being: effects by timing, dosage, and subgroups. Science, 333(6040), 360–364.
Roeser, R. W., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Jha, A., Cullen, M., Wallace, L., Wilensky, R., … Harrison, J. (2013). Mindfulness training and reductions in teacher stress and burnout: Results from two randomized, waitlist-control field trials. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 787–804.
Rosvold, H. E., Mirsky, A. F., Sarason, I., Bransome, E. D. Jr., & Beck, L. H. (1956). A continuous performance test of brain damage. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 20(5), 343–350.
Rothbart, M. K. (2007). Temperament, development, and personality. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(4), 207–212.
Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., & Hershey, K. L. (1994). Temperament and social behavior in childhood. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 40(1), 21–39.
Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., Hershey, K. L., & Fisher, P. (2001). Investigations of temperament at three to seven years: The Children’s Behavior Questionnaire. Child Development, 72(5), 1394–1408.
Rothbart, M. K., Derryberry, D., & Hershey, K. (2000). Stability of temperament in childhood: Laboratory infant assessment to parent report at seven years. In V. J. Molfese & D. L. Molfee (Eds.), Temperament and personality development across the lifespan (pp. 85–120). Mahwah: Erlbaum Associates.
Rothbart, M. K., Sheese, B. E., Rueda, M. R., & Posner, M. I. (2011). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation in early life. Emotion Review: Journal for the International Society for Research on Emotion, 3(2), 207–213.
Rueda, M. R., Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2004). Attentional control and self-regulation. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 283–300). New York: Guilford Press.
Rueda, M. R., Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2005). The development of executive attention: contributions to the emergence of self-regulation. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28(2), 573–594.
Rueda, M. R., Rothbart, M. K., McCandliss, B. D., Saccomanno, L., & Posner, M. I. (2005). Training, maturation and genetic influences on the development of executive attention. PNAS, 102(41), 14931–14936.
Rutter, M. (1999). Resilience concepts and findings: implications for family therapy. Journal of Family Therapy, 21(2), 119–144.
Rutter, M., Kim-Cohen, J., & Maughan, B. (2006). Continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(3–4), 276–295.
Rutter, M., & Sroufe, L. A. (2000). Developmental psychopathology: Concepts and challenges. Development and Psychopathology, 12(3), 265–296.
Sameroff, A. J. (Ed.). (2009). The transactional model of development: How children and contexts shape each other. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Sameroff, A. J. (2010). A unified theory of development: A dialectic integration of nature and nurture. Child Development, 81(1), 6–22.
Sameroff, A. J., & Fiese, B. H. (2000). Transactional regulation: The developmental ecology of early intervention. In J. P. Shonkoff & S. J. Meisels (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood intervention (pp. 135–159). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Samuels, W. E., Tournaki, N., Blackman, S., & Zilinski, C. (2016). Executive functioning predicts academic achievement in middle school: A four-year longitudinal study. The Journal of Educational Research, 109(5), 478–490.
Sarsour, K., Sheridan, M., Jutte, D., Nuru-Jeter, A., Hinshaw, S., & Boyce, W. T. (2011). Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: The roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17(1), 120–132.
Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2017). Social and emotional learning and teachers. The Future of Children, 27(1), 137–155.
Senn, T. E., Espy, K. A., & Kaufman, P. M. (2004). Using path analysis to understand executive function organization in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26(1), 445–464.
Shonkoff, J. P. (2016). Capitalizing on advances in science to reduce the health consequences of early childhood adversity. JAMA Pediatrics, 170(10), 1003–1007.
Siegler, R. S., & Chen, Z. (2008). Differentiation and integration: Guiding principles for analyzing cognitive change. Developmental Science, 11(4), 433–453.
Sokol, B., Müller, U., Carpendale, J., Young, A., & Iarocci, G. (Eds.). (2010). Self- and social- regulation: Exploring the relations between social interaction, social understanding, and the development of executive functions. New York: Oxford University Press.
Song, J. H., Miller, A. L., Leung, C. Y. Y., Lumeng, J. C., & Rosenblum, K. L. (2018). Positive parenting moderates the association between temperament and self-regulation in low-income toddlers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27(7), 2354–2364.
Sroufe, L. A. (1979). The coherence of individual development: Early care, attachment, and subsequent developmental issues. American Psychologist, 34(10), 834–841.
Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18(6), 643–662.
Sulik, M. J., Huerta, S., Zerr, A. A., Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., Valiente, C., & Taylor, H. B. (2010). The factor structure of effortful control and measurement invariance across ethnicity and sex in a high-risk sample. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32, 8–22.
Thorell, L. B., Lindqvist, S., Nutley, S. B., Bohlin, G., & Kingberg, T. (2009). Training and transfer effects of executive functions in preschool children. Developmental Science, 12(1), 106–113.
Titz, C., & Karbach, J. (2014). Working memory and executive functions: Effects of training on academic achievement. Psychological Research Psychologische Forschung, 78(6), 852–868.
Valiente, C., Eisenberg, N., Haugen, R., Spinrad, T. L., Hofer, C., Liew, J., & Kupfer, A. (2011). Children’s effortful control and academic achievement: Mediation through social functioning. Early Education & Development, 22(3), 411–433.
Valiente, C., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Swanson, J., & Reiser, M. (2008). Prediction of children’s academic competence from their effortful control, relationships, and classroom participation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(1), 67–77.
van der Meer, L., Groenewold, N. A., Nolen, W. A., Pijenborg, M., & Aleman, A. (2011). Inhibit yourself and understand the other: Neural basis of distinct processes underlying Theory of Mind. Neuroimage, 56(4), 2364–2374.
Vogt, B. A., Finch, D. M., & Olson, C. R. (1992). Functional heterogeneity in cingulate cortex: The anterior executive and posterior evaluative regions. Cerebral Cortex, 2(6), 435–443.
Vohs, K. D., & Baumeister, R. F. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (2nd edn.). New York: Guilford Press.
Welsh, M. C., & Pennington, B. F. (1988). Assessing frontal lobe functioning in children: Views from developmental psychology. Developmental Neuropsychology, 4(3), 199–230.
Werner, H. (1957). The concept of development from a comparative and organismic point of view. In D. B. Harris (Ed.), The concept of development. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Wiebe, S. A., Sheffield, T., Nelson, J. M., Clark, C. A., Chevalier, N., & Espy, K. A. (2011). The structure of executive function in 3-year-olds. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108(3), 436–452.
Yeager, D. S. (2017). Social and emotional learning programs for adolescents. Future of Children, 27(1), 73–94.
Zelazo, P. D., & Carlson, S. M. (2012). Hot and cool executive function in childhood and adolescence: Development and plasticity. Child Development Perspectives, 6(4), 354–360.
Zelazo, P. D., Carter, A., Reznick, J. S., & Frye, D. (1997). Early development of executive function: A problem-solving framework. Review of General Psychology, 1(2), 198–226.
Zelazo, P. D., Müller, U., Frye, D., & Markovitch, S. (2003). The development of executive functions in early childhood. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 68(3), vii–137.
Zhai, F., Raver, C. C., & Jones, S. M. (2012). Academic performance of subsequent schools and impacts of early interventions: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial in Head Start settings. Child Youth Services Review, 34(5), 946–954.
Zhou, Q., Chen, S. H., & Main, A. (2011). Commonalities and differences in the research on children’s effortful control and executive function: A call for an integrated model of self-regulation. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 112–121.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Bailey, R., Jones, S.M. An Integrated Model of Regulation for Applied Settings. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 22, 2–23 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-019-00288-y
- School-based intervention
- Developmental model