Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 403–421 | Cite as

The BUFFET Program: Development of a Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Selective Eating in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Emily S. Kuschner
  • Hannah E. Morton
  • Brenna B. Maddox
  • Ashley de Marchena
  • Laura Gutermuth Anthony
  • Judy Reaven
Article

Abstract

Selective eating (often referred to as “picky” eating) is common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across the lifespan. Behavioral interventions are widely used to treat selective eating; however, most of these programs are time intensive, have not been evaluated for use in outpatient settings, and do not typically include youth beyond early childhood. Despite the functional impact and risk for negative outcomes associated with selective eating, there are no empirically supported treatments available for older children, adolescents, or adults, either with or without ASD. To address this treatment gap, we developed BUFFET: the Building Up Food Flexibility and Exposure Treatment program. BUFFET is a 14-week, multi-family group cognitive behavioral treatment for selective eating in children (8–12 years) with ASD. In this paper, we will (1) discuss the theoretical conceptualization of BUFFET, (2) describe the treatment content and structure, (3) present feasibility data from the initial pilot trial, and (4) consider next steps in treatment development.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorder Feeding Picky eating Cognitive behavior therapy Intervention Sensory 

References

  1. Ahearn, W. H., Castine, T., Nault, K., & Green, G. (2001). An assessment of food acceptance in children with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(5), 505–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Attkisson, C. C., & Zwick, R. (1982). The client satisfaction questionnaire. Psychometric properties and correlations with service utilization and psychotherapy outcome. Evaluation and Program Planning, 5(3), 233–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ausderau, K., & Juarez, M. (2013). The impact of autism spectrum disorders and eating challenges on Family Mealtimes. Childhood Obesity and Nutrition, 5(5), 315–323. doi:10.1177/1941406413502808.Google Scholar
  4. Bandini, L. G., Anderson, S. E., Curtin, C., Cermak, S., Evans, E. W. I., Scampini, R., et al. (2010). Food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorders and typically developing children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 157(2), 259–264. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.02.013.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bandini, L. G., Curtin, C., Phillips, S., Anderson, S. E., Maslin, M., & Must, A. (2016). Changes in food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi:10.1007/s10803-016-2963-6.Google Scholar
  6. Barron-Linnankoski, S., Reinvall, O., Lahervuori, A., Voutilainen, A., Lahti-Nuuttila, P., & Korkman, M. (2014). Neurocognitive performance of children with higher functioning Autism Spectrum disorders on the NEPSY-II. Child Neuropsychology, 21(1), 55–77. doi:10.1080/09297049.2013.873781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ben-Sasson, A., Hen, L., Fluss, R., Cermak, S. A., Engel-Yeger, B., & Gal, E. (2008). A meta-analysis of sensory modulation symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(1), 1–11. doi:10.1007/s10803-008-0593-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Birch, L. L. (1999). Development of food preferences. Annual Review of Nutrition, 19(1), 41–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Birch, L. L., & Marlin, D. W. (1982). I don’t like it; I never tried it: Effects of exposure on two-year-old children’s food preferences. Appetite, 3(4), 353–360. doi:10.1016/S0195-6663(82)80053-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowen, D. J., Kreuter, M., Spring, B., Cofta-Woerpel, L., Linnan, L., Weiner, D., et al. (2009). How we design feasibility studies. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36(5), 452–457. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2009.02.002.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bryant-Waugh, R., Markham, L., Kreipe, R. E., & Walsh, B. T. (2010). Feeding and eating disorders in childhood. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 43(2), 98–111. doi:10.1002/eat.20795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cannon, L., Kenworthy, L., Alexander, K. C., Werner, M. A., & Anthony, L. G. (2011). Unstuck and On Target. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.Google Scholar
  13. Cermak, S. A., Curtin, C., & Bandini, L. G. (2010). Food selectivity and sensory sensitivity in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 110(2), 238–246. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.10.032.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Curran, G. M., Bauer, M., Mittman, B., Pyne, J. M., & Stetler, C. (2012). Effectiveness-implementation hybrid designs: combining elements of clinical effectiveness and implementation research to enhance public health impact. Medical Care, 50(3), 217–226. doi:10.1097/MLR.0b013e3182408812.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Curtin, C., Hubbard, K., Anderson, S. E., Mick, E., Must, A., & Bandini, L. G. (2015). Food selectivity, mealtime behavior problems, spousal stress, and family food choices in children with and without autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 3308–3315.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. D’Cruz, A.-M., Ragozzino, M. E., Mosconi, M. W., Shrestha, S., Cook, E. H., & Sweeney, J. A. (2013). Reduced behavioral flexibility in autism spectrum disorders. Neuropsychology, 27(2), 152–160. doi:10.1037/a0031721.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dingfelder, H. E., & Mandell, D. S. (2011). Bridging the research-to-practice gap in autism intervention: an application of diffusion of innovation theory. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(5), 597–609. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1081-0.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dowell, L. R., Mahone, E. M., & Mostofsky, S. H. (2009). Associations of postural knowledge and basic motor skill with dyspraxia in autism: Implication for abnormalities in distributed connectivity and motor learning. Neuropsychology, 23(5), 563–570. doi:10.1037/a0015640.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dziuk, M. A., Larson, J. C. G., Apostu, A., Mahone, E. M., Denckla, M. B., & Mostofsky, S. H. (2007). Dyspraxia in autism: association with motor, social, and communicative deficits. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49(10), 734–739. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00734.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Elliott, C. D. (2007). Differential Ability Scales-II (DAS-II). San Antonio, TX: Pearson Assessments.Google Scholar
  21. Fodstad, J. C., & Matson, J. L. (2008). A Comparison of Feeding and Mealtime Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities With and Without Autism. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 20(6), 541–550. doi:10.1007/s10882-008-9116-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gastgeb, H. Z., Dundas, E. M., Minshew, N. J., & Strauss, M. S. (2011). Category formation in autism: Can individuals with autism form categories and prototypes of dot patterns? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(8), 1694–1704. doi:10.1007/s10803-011-1411-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Glasgow, R. E., & Lichtenstein, E. (2003). Why don’t we see more translation of health promotion research to practice? Rethinking the efficacy-to-effectiveness transition. American Journal of Public Health, 93(8), 1261–1267.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Green, D., Charman, T., Pickles, A., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., Simonoff, E., et al. (2009a). Impairment in movement skills of children with autistic spectrum disorders. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 51(4), 311–316. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2008.03242.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Green, L. W., Ottoson, J. M., Garcia, C., & Hiatt, R. A. (2009b). Diffusion theory and knowledge dissemination, utilization, and integration in public health. Annual Review of Public Health, 30, 151–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Herman, C. P. (2015). The social facilitation of eating. A review. Appetite, 86, 61–73. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2014.09.016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Johnson, S. L., Davies, P. L., Boles, R. E., Gavin, W. J., & Bellows, L. L. (2015a). Young children’s food neophobia characteristics and sensory behaviors are related to their food intake. Journal of Nutrition, 145(11), 2610–2616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Johnson, C. R., Foldes, E., DeMand, A., & Brooks, M. M. (2015b). Behavioral parent training to address feeding problems in children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot trial. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 27(5), 591–607. doi:10.1007/s10882-015-9437-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnson, C. R., Handen, B. L., Butter, E., Wagner, A., Mulick, J., Sukhodolsky, D. G., et al. (2007). Development of a parent training program for children with pervasive developmental disorders. Behavioral Interventions, 22, 201–221. doi:10.1002/bin.237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Johnson, C. R., Turner, K. S., Foldes, E., Brooks, M. M., Kronk, R., & Wiggs, L. (2013). Behavioral parent training to address sleep disturbances in young children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot trial. Sleep Medicine, 14(10), 995–1004. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2013.05.013.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kang, V., Wagner, G. C., & Ming, X. (2014). Gastrointestinal dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism Research, 7(4), 501–506. doi:10.1002/aur.1386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kedesdy, J. H., & Budd, K. S. (1998). Childhood feeding disorders: Biobehavioral assessment and intervention. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc.Google Scholar
  33. Keeney, S., McKenna, H., & Hasson, F. (2011). The Delphi technique in nursing and health research. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kendall, P. C., & Hedtke, K. A. (2006). Coping Cat workbook (Vol. 2). Atlanta: Ardmore.Google Scholar
  35. Kendall, P. C., Robin, J., Hedtke, K., Suveg, C., Flannery-Schroeer, E., & Gosch, E. (2005). Considering CBT with anxious youth? Think exposure. Cognitive Behavioral Practice, 12, 136–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kenworthy, L., Anthony, L. G., Naiman, D. Q., Cannon, L., Wills, M. C., Luong-Tran, C., et al. (2014). Randomized controlled effectiveness trial of executive function intervention for children on the autism spectrum. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 55(4), 374–383. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Klinger, L. G., & Dawson, G. (2001). Prototype formation in autism. Development and Psychopathology, 13(1), 111–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kuschner, E. S., Eisenberg, I. W., Orionzi, B., Simmons, W. K., Kenworthy, L., Martin, A., et al. (2015). A preliminary study of self-reported food selectivity in adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 15–16, 53–59. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2015.04.005.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lane, A. E., Geraghty, M. E., Young, G. S., & Rostorfer, J. L. (2014). Problem eating behaviors in autism spectrum disorder are associated with suboptimal daily nutrient intake and taste/smell sensitivity. Infant, Child, and Adolescent Nutrition, 6, 172–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lane, A. E., Young, R. L., Baker, A. E. Z., & Angley, M. T. (2009). Sensory processing subtypes in autism: Association with adaptive behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(1), 112–122. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0840-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Laugeson, E. A., Frankel, F., Gantman, A., Dillon, A. R., & Mogil, C. (2012). Evidence-based social skills training for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: the UCLA PEERS program. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(6), 1025–1036. doi:10.1007/s10803-011-1339-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ledford, J. R., & Gast, D. L. (2006). Feeding problems in children with autism spectrum disorders: A Review. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 21(3), 153–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Linstone, H. A., & Turoff, M. (1975). The Delphi method: Techniques and applications. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  44. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. L. (2013). Autism diagnostic observation schedule (2nd ed.). Torrance: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  45. Lukens, C. T., & Silverman, A. H. (2014). Systematic review of psychological interventions for pediatric feeding problems. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 39(8), 903–917. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsu040.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ma, N. S., Thompson, C., & Weston, S. (2016). Brief Report: Scurvy as a manifestation of food selectivity in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(4), 1464–1470. doi:10.1007/s10803-015-2660-x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Maes, J. H. R., Eling, P. A. T. M., Wezenberg, E., Vissers, C. T. W. M., & Kan, C. C. (2010). Attentional set shifting in autism spectrum disorder: Differentiating between the role of perseveration, learned irrelevance, and novelty processing. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33(2), 210–217. doi:10.1080/13803395.2010.501327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Marquenie, K., Rodger, S., Mangohig, K., & Cronin, A. (2011). Dinnertime and bedtime routines and rituals in families with a young child with an autism spectrum disorder. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 58(3), 145–154. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1630.2010.00896.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mascola, A. J., Bryson, S. W., & Agras, W. S. (2010). Picky eating during childhood: a longitudinal study to age 11 years. Eating Behaviors, 11(4), 253–257. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2010.05.006.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McElhanon, B. O., McCracken, C., Karpen, S., & Sharp, W. G. (2014). Gastrointestinal symptoms in autism spectrum disorder: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 133(5), 872–883. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-3995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Proctor, E., Silmere, H., Raghavan, R., Hovmand, P., Aarons, G., Bunger, A., et al. (2011). Outcomes for implementation research: conceptual distinctions, measurement challenges, and research agenda. Administration and Policy In Mental Health, 38(2), 65–76. doi:10.1007/s10488-010-0319-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Reaven, J., Blakeley-Smith, A., Culhane-Shelburne, K., & Hepburn, S. (2012). Group cognitive behavior therapy for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and anxiety: A randomized trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(4), 410–419. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02486.x.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Reaven, J., Blakeley-Smith, A., Nichols, S., & Hepburn, S. (2011). Facing your fears: Group therapy for managing anxiety in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  54. Reaven, J., & Hepburn, S. (2006). The parent’s role in the treatment of anxiety symptoms in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Mental Health Aspects of Developmental Disabilities, 9(3), 73–80.Google Scholar
  55. Ritvo, E. R., & Freeman, B. J. (1978). Current research on the syndrome of autism: Introduction. The national society for autistic children’s definition of the syndrome of autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 17, 565–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rogers, L. G., Magill-Evans, J., & Rempel, G. R. (2011). Mothers’ challenges in feeding their children with autism spectrum disorder—Managing more than just picky eating. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 24(1), 19–33. doi:10.1007/s10882-011-9252-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). The Social Communication Questionnaire. Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  58. Schreck, K. A., Williams, K., & Smith, A. F. (2004). A comparison of eating behaviors between children with and without autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(4), 433–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sharp, W. G., Berry, R. C., McCracken, C., Nuhu, N. N., Marvel, E., Saulnier, C. A., et al. (2013). Feeding problems and nutrient intake in children with autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis and comprehensive review of the literature. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi:10.1007/s10803-013-1771-5.Google Scholar
  60. Sharp, W. G., Burrell, T. L., & Jaquess, D. L. (2014). The Autism MEAL Plan: A parent-training curriculum to manage eating aversions and low intake among children with autism. Autism, 18(6), 712–722. doi:10.1177/1362361313489190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sharp, W. G., Jaquess, D. L., Morton, J. F., & Herzinger, C. V. (2010). Pediatric feeding disorders: A quantitative synthesis of treatment outcomes. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 13(4), 348–365. doi:10.1007/s10567-010-0079-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sharp, W. G., Volkert, V. M., Scahill, L., McCracken, C. E., & McElhanon, B. (2016). A systematic review and meta-analysis of intensive multidisciplinary intervention for pediatric feeding disorders: how standard is the standard of care? The Journal of Pediatrics. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.10.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Shmaya, Y., Eilat-Adar, S., Leitner, Y., Reif, S., & Gabis, L. (2015). Nutritional deficiencies and overweight prevalence among children with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 38, 1–6. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.11.020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Storch, E. A., Arnold, E. B., Lewin, A. B., Nadeau, J. M., Jones, A. M., De Nadai, A. S., et al. (2013). The effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy versus treatment as usual for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders: A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(2), 132–142.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2012.11.007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Storch, E. A., Lewin, A. B., Collier, A. B., Arnold, E., De Nadai, A. S., Dane, B. F., et al. (2015). A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy versus treatment as usual for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and comorbid anxiety. Depression and Anxiety, 32(3), 174–181. doi:10.1002/da.22332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tager-Flusberg, H., Edelson, L., & Luyster, R. (2011). Language and communication in autism spectrum disorders. In D. G. Amaral, G. Dawson, & D. Geschwind (Eds.), autism spectrum disorders (pp. 172–185). United Kingdom: Oxford.Google Scholar
  67. Toomey, K. A., & Ross, E. S. (2011). SOS approach to feeding. Perspectives on Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia), 20(3), 82. doi:10.1044/sasd20.3.82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Twachtman-Reilly, J., Amaral, S. C., & Zebrowski, P. P. (2008). Addressing feeding disorders in children on the autism spectrum in school-based settings: Physiological and behavioral issues. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 39(2), 261. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2008/025).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ung, D., Selles, R., Small, B. J., & Storch, E. A. (2015). A systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in youth with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 46(4), 533–547. doi:10.1007/s10578-014-0494-y.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. van Steensel, F. J. A., Bögels, S. M., & Perrin, S. (2011). Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14(3), 302–317. doi:10.1007/s10567-011-0097-0.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Vissoker, R. E., Latzer, Y., & Gal, E. (2015). Eating and feeding problems and gastrointestinal dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 12, 10–21. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2014.12.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wardle, J., Cooke, L. J., Gibson, E. L., Sapochnik, M., Sheiham, A., & Lawson, M. (2003). Increasing children’s acceptance of vegetables; A randomized trial of parent-led exposure. Appetite, 40(2), 155–162. doi:10.1016/S0195-6663(02)00135-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wells, K. B. (1999). Treatment research at the crossroads: the scientific interface of clinical trials and effectiveness research. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(1), 5–10. doi:10.1176/ajp.156.1.5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. White, S. W., Ollendick, T., Albano, A. M., Oswald, D., Johnson, C., Southam-Gerow, M. A., et al. (2013). Randomized controlled trial: Multimodal anxiety and social skill intervention for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(2), 382–394. doi:10.1007/s10803-012-1577-x.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. White, S. W., Ollendick, T., Scahill, L., & Oswald, D. (2009). Preliminary efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral treatment program for anxious youth with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0801-9.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Williams, K. E., Gibbons, B. G., & Schreck, K. A. (2005). Comparing selective eaters with and without developmental disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 17(3), 299–309. doi:10.1007/s10882-005-4387-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wood, J. J., Drahota, A., Sze, K., Har, K., Chiu, A., & Langer, D. A. (2009a). Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders: A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(3), 224–234. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01948.x.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wood, J. J., Drahota, A., Sze, K., Van Dyke, M., Decker, K., Fujii, C., et al. (2009b). Brief Report: Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on parent-reported autism symptoms in school-age children with high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(11), 1608–1612. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0791-7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Yerys, B. E., Wallace, G. L., Harrison, B., Celano, M. J., Giedd, J. N., & Kenworthy, L. E. (2009). Set-shifting in children with autism spectrum disorders: Reversal shifting deficits on the Intradimensional/Extradimensional Shift Test correlate with repetitive behaviors. Autism, 13(5), 523–538. doi:10.1177/1362361309335716.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zimmer, M. H., Hart, L. C., Manning-Courtney, P., Murray, D. S., Bing, N. M., & Summer, S. (2011). Food variety as a predictor of nutritional status among children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(4), 549–556. doi:10.1007/s10803-011-1268-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zucker, N., Copeland, W., Franz, L., Carpenter, K., Keeling, L., Angold, A., et al. (2015). Psychological and psychosocial impairment in preschoolers with selective eating. Pediatrics. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-2386.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Autism ResearchThe Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyThe Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Psychology, Binghamton UniversityState University of New YorkBinghamtonUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  5. 5.Department of Behavioral and Social SciencesUniversity of the SciencesPhiladelphiaUSA
  6. 6.Division of Pediatric NeuropsychologyChildren’s National Health SystemWashingtonUSA
  7. 7.JFK Partners, Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, School of MedicineDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations