Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 250–332 | Cite as

Conceptualizing Culturally Infused Engagement and Its Measurement for Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Children and Families



Despite the central role culture plays in racial and ethnic disparities in mental health among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families, existing measures of engagement in mental health services have failed to integrate culturally specific factors that shape these families’ engagement with mental health services. To illustrate this gap, the authors systematically review 119 existing instruments that measure the multi-dimensional and developmental process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review is anchored in a new integrated conceptualization of engagement, the culturally infused engagement model. The review assesses culturally relevant cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral mechanisms of engagement from the stages of problem recognition and help seeking to treatment participation that can help illuminate the gaps. Existing measures examined four central domains pertinent to the process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families: (a) expressions of mental distress and illness, (b) causal explanations of mental distress and illness, (c) beliefs about mental distress and illness, and (d) beliefs and experiences of seeking help. The findings highlight the variety of tools that are used to measure behavioral and attitudinal dimensions of engagement, showing the limitations of their application for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review proposes directions for promising research methodologies to help intervention scientists and clinicians improve engagement and service delivery and reduce disparities among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families at large, and recommends practical applications for training, program planning, and policymaking.


Engagement Culture Ethnic minority children Immigrant families Assessment 



This research was supported by a grant from the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality to Dr. Yasui (AHRQ: 5K12 HS023007). The authors thank Jonathan M. Storm for editorial support and Lenna Nepomnyaschy for thoughtful comments on the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Abe-Kim, J., Gong, F., & Takeuchi, D. (2004). Religiosity, spirituality, and help-seeking among Filipino Americans: Religious clergy or mental health professionals? Journal of Community Psychology, 32(6), 675–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abera, M., Robbins, J. M., & Tesfaye, M. (2015). Parents’ perceptions of child and adolescent mental health problems and their choice of treatment option in southwest Ethiopia. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 9, 40. doi: 10.1186/s13034-015-0072-5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ackerman, S. J., Hilsenroth, M. J., Baity, M. R., & Blagys, M. D. (2000). Interaction of therapeutic process and alliance during psychological assessment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 75(1), 82–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aday, L. A., Fleming, G. V., & Andersen, R. (1984). Access to medical care in the US: Who has it, who doesn’t. Chicago, IL: Pluribus Press, Inc. and Center for Health Administration Studies.Google Scholar
  5. Addis, M. E., Wade, W. A., & Hatgis, C. (1999). Barriers to dissemination of evidence-based practices: Addressing practitioners’ concerns about manual-based psychotherapies. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 6, 430–441.Google Scholar
  6. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alcázar-Olán, R. J., Deffenbacher, J. L., & Escamilla-Tecalco, H. (2016). Developing a valid version of an inventory to measure anger in Mexican adolescents of middle school level: The ML-STAXI-MS. Youth & Society, 48(1), 126–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alegría, M., Pescosolido, B. A., Williams, S., & Canino, G. (2011). Culture, race/ethnicity and disparities: Fleshing out the socio-cultural framework for health services disparities. In Handbook of the sociology of health, illness, and healing (pp. 363–382). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  9. Allen, J. G., Coyne, L., Colson, D. B., Horowitz, L., Gabbard, G. O., Frieswick, S. H., et al. (1996). Pattern of therapist interventions associated with patient collaboration. Psychotherapy, 33(2), 254–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5 ® ). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Angermeyer, M. C., Beck, M., & Matschinger, H. (2003). Determinants of the public’s preference for social distance from people with schizophrenia. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48, 663–668.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Angermeyer, M. C., & Dietrich, S. (2006). Public beliefs about and attitudes towards people with mental illness: A review of population studies. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 113(3), 163–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Angermeyer, A. A., & Klusmann, D. (1988). The causes of functional psychoses as seen by patients and their relatives. European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 238, 47–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Angermeyer, M. C., & Matschinger, H. (1996). Relatives’ beliefs about the causes of schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 93, 199–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Angermeyer, M. C., Matschinger, H., & Corrigan, P. W. (2004). Familiarity with mental illness and social distance from people with schizophrenia and major depression: Testing a model using data from a representative population survey. Schizophrenia Research, 69(2), 175–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Anglin, D., Alberti, P., Link, B., & Phelan, J. (2008). Racial differences in beliefs about the effectiveness and necessity of mental health treatment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 42(1–2), 17–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Angold, A., Messer, S., Stangl, D., Farmer, E., Costello, E., & Burns, B. (1998). Perceived parental burden and service use for child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. American Journal of Public Health, 88(1), 75–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: A meta-analytic review. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40(4), 471–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Arvaniti, A., Samakouri, M., Kalamara, E., Bochtsou, V., Bikos, C., & Livaditis, M. (2009). Health service staff’s attitudes towards patients with mental illness. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 44(8), 658–665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Austin, N. L., Carter, R. T., & Vaux, A. (1990). The role of racial identity in Black students’ attitudes toward counseling and counseling centers. Journal of College Student Development, 31, 237–244.Google Scholar
  21. Austin, J. K., & Huberty, T. J. (1993). Development of the child attitude toward illness scale. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 18(4), 467–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bachelor, A. (1995). Clients’ perception of the therapeutic alliance: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42(3), 323–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bachelor, A. (2013). Clients’ and therapists’ views of the therapeutic alliance: Similarities, differences and relationship to therapy outcome. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 20(2), 118–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Barke, A., Nyarko, S., & Klecha, D. (2011). The stigma of mental illness in Southern Ghana: Attitudes of the urban population and patients’ views. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46(11), 1191–1202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Barker, C., Pistrang, N., & Shapiro, D. A. (1983). Opinions about psychological problems. Unpublished manuscript, Bloomsbury and Islington District Psychology Department.Google Scholar
  26. Barkley, L. C. (2000). Make an impact before that teen leaves your office. Minority Health Today, 1(4), 25–30.Google Scholar
  27. Barrera, M., Jr., & Castro, F. G. (2006). A heuristic framework for the cultural adaptation of interventions. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 13(4), 311–316.Google Scholar
  28. Barrowclough, C., & Hooley, J. M. (2003). Attributions and expressed emotion: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 23(6), 849–880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Batterham, P. J., Calear, A. L., & Christensen, H. (2013). The Stigma of Suicide Scale: Psychometric properties and correlates of the stigma of suicide. Crisis, 34(1), 13–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bayer, J. K., & Peay, M. Y. (1997). Predicting intentions to seek help from professional mental health services. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 31, 504–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Becker, K. D., Lee, B. R., Daleiden, E. L., Lindsey, M., Brandt, N. E., & Chorpita, B. F. (2015). The common elements of engagement in children’s mental health services: Which elements for which outcomes? Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44(1), 30–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bernal, G., Bonilla, J., & Bellido, C. (1995). Ecological validity and cultural sensitivity for outcome research: Issues for the cultural adaptation and development of psychosocial treatments with Hispanics. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23(1), 67–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bernal, G. E., & Domenech-Rodríguez, M. M. (2012). Cultural adaptations: Tools for evidence-based practice with diverse populations. Arlington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Berzins, J. I. (1977). Therapist-patient matching. In A. S. Gurman & A. M. Razin (Eds.), Effective psychotherapy: A handbook of research (pp. 222–251). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  35. Betancourt, J. R. (2004). Cultural competence—marginal or mainstream movement? New England Journal of Medicine, 351(10), 953–955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Betancourt, H., & López, S. R. (1993). The study of culture, ethnicity, and race in American psychology. American Psychologist, 48(6), 629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bird, H., Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Gould, M., Staghezza, B., Chen, J., et al. (1993). The Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS): Pilot findings on a measure of global impairment for children and adolescents. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 3(3), 167–176.Google Scholar
  38. Bolton, P., Wilks, C., & Ndogoni, L. (2004). Assessment of depression prevalence in rural Uganda using symptom and function criteria. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39(6), 442–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Bonner, B. L. (1984). Influence of Client Preparation and Problem Severity on Attitudes and Expectations in Child Psychotherapy (unpublished doctoral dissertation). Stillwater, Oklahoma: Oklahoma State University.Google Scholar
  40. Bordin, E. S. (1994). Theory and research on the therapeutic working alliance: New directions. The working alliance: Theory, research, and practice, pp. 13–37.Google Scholar
  41. Boyd Ritsher, J. E. (2003). Internalized stigma of mental illness: Psychometric properties of a new measure. Psychiatry Research, 121(1), 31–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Breda, C. S., & Riemer, M. (2012). Motivation for Youth’s Treatment Scale (MYTS): A new tool for measuring motivation among youths and their caregivers. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 39(1–2), 118–132.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Breslau, J., Lane, M., Sampson, N., & Kessler, R. (2008). Mental disorders and subsequent educational attainment in a US national sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 42(9), 708–716.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Britt, T. W., Greene-Shortridge, T. M., Brink, S., Nguyen, Q. B., & Rath, J. (2008). Perceived stigma and barriers to care for psychological treatment: Implications for reactions to stressors in different contexts. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27(4), 317–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Brohan, E., Clement, S., Rose, D., Sartorius, N., Slade, M., & Thornicroft, G. (2013). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC). Psychiatry Research, 208(1), 33–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Brown, C., Conner, K. O., Copeland, V. C., Grote, N., Beach, S., Battista, D., et al. (2010). Depression stigma, race, and treatment seeking behavior and attitudes. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(3), 350–368.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Bulanda, J. J., Bruhn, C., Byro-Johnson, T., & Zentmyer, T. (2014). Addressing mental health stigma among young adolescents: evaluation of a youth-led approach. Health and Social Work, 39(2), 73–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Burns, J. R., & Rapee, R. M. (2006). Adolescent mental health literacy: Young people’s knowledge of depression and help seeking. Journal of Adolescence, 29(2), 225–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Bussing, R., Gary, F. A., Mills, T. L., & Garvan, C. W. (2003). Parental explanatory models of ADHD. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38(10), 563–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Bussing, R., Koro-Ljungberg, M., Mason, D., Mayerson, G., Noguchi, K., & Garvan, C. W. (2012). Willingness to use ADHD treatments: A mixed methods study of perceptions by adolescents, parents, health professionals and teachers. Social Science and Medicine, 74(1), 92–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Carrillo, J. E., Green, A. R., & Betancourt, J. R. (1999). Cross-cultural primary care: A patient-based approach. Annals of Internal Medicine, 130(10), 829–834.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Castro, F. G., Barrera, M., & Steiker, L. K. H. (2010). Issues and challenges in the design of cultural adapted evidence-based interventions. Annual Review Clinical Psychology, 6, 213–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Cauce, A. M., Domenech-Rodríguez, M., Paradise, M., Cochran, B. N., Shea, J. M., Srebnik, D., et al. (2002). Cultural and contextual influences in mental health help seeking: A focus on ethnic minority youth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(1), 44–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Chan, Y., Leung, D., Fong, D., Leung, C., & Lee, A. (2010). Psychometric valuation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in a large community sample of adolescents in Hong Kong. Quality of Life Research, 19(6), 865–873.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Chan, R. Y. K., & Lau, L. B. Y. (2001). Explaining green purchasing behavior: A cross-cultural study on American and Chinese consumers. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 14, 9–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Chang, D. F., & Berk, A. (2009). Making cross-racial therapy work: A phenomenological study of clients’ experiences of cross-racial therapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(4), 521.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Chavez, L., Shrout, P., Alegría, M., Lapatin, S., & Canino, G. (2010). Ethnic differences in perceived impairment and need for care. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(8), 1165–1177.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Cheung, F. M., Lee, S., & Chan, Y. (1983). Variations in problem conceptualizations and intended solutions among Hong Kong students. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 7(3), 263–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Chhim, S. (2012). Baksbat (broken courage): The development and validation of the inventory to measure baksbat, a Cambodian trauma-based cultural syndrome of distress. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 36(4), 640–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Choi, K. H. (2002). Psychological separation-individuation and adjustment to college among Korean American students: The roles of collectivism and individualism. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(4), 468–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Chorpita, B. F., Yim, L. M., Donkervoet, J. C., Arensdorf, A., Amundsen, M. J., McGee, C., et al. (2002). Toward large-scale implementation of empirically supported treatments for children: A review and observations by the Hawaii Empirical Basis to Services Task Force. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9(2), 165–190.Google Scholar
  62. Clement, S., Schauman, O., Graham, T., Maggioni, F., Evans-Lacko, S., Bezborodovs, N., et al. (2015). What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Psychological Medicine, 45(1), 11–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Cohen, B. Z. (1999). Measuring the willingness to seek help. Journal of Social Service Research, 26(1), 67–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Cohen, D., Yoon, D. P., & Johnstone, B. (2009). Differentiating the impact of spiritual experiences, religious practices, and congregational support on the mental health of individuals with heterogenous medical disorders. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 19(2), 121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Cohen, J., & Struening, E. L. (1962). Opinions about mental illness in the personnel of two large mental hospitals. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 64(5), 349–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Coleman, D., Walker, J. S., Lee, J., Friesen, B. J., & Squire, P. N. (2009). Children’s beliefs about causes of childhood depression and ADHD: A study of stigmatization. Psychiatric Services, 60(7), 950–957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Coles, M., Ravid, A., Gibb, B., George-Denn, D., Bronstein, L., & McLeod, S. (2016). Adolescent mental health literacy: Young people’s knowledge of depression and social anxiety disorder. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58(1), 57–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Collins, N. L., & Miller, L. C. (1994). Self-disclosure and liking: a meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 116(3), 457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Comas-Díaz, L. (2006). Cultural variation in the therapeutic relationship. In C. D. Goodheart, A. E. Kazdin, & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Evidence-based psychotherapy: Where practice and research meet (pp. 81–105). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Conger, R. D., Wallace, L. E., Sun, Y., Simons, R. L., McLoyd, V. C., & Brody, G. H. (2002). Economic pressure in African American families: a replication and extension of the family stress model. Developmental Psychology, 38(2), 179–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Constantino, M. J., Castonguay, L. G., & Schut, A. J. (2002). The working alliance: A flagship for the “scientist-practitioner” model in psychotherapy. In G. S. Tryon (Ed.), Counseling based on process research: Applying what we know (pp. 81–131). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  73. Converse, L., Barrett, K., Rich, E., & Reschovsky, J. (2015). Methods of observing variations in physicians’ decisions: The opportunities of clinical vignettes. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 30(3), 586–594.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Cooper, L. A., Brown, C., Vu, H. T., Palenchar, D. R., Gonzales, J. J., Ford, D. E., et al. (2000). Primary care patients’ opinions regarding the importance of various aspects of care for depression. General Hospital Psychiatry, 22(3), 163–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Corrigan, P. W. (2004). How stigma interferes with mental health care. American Psychologist, 59(7), 614–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Corrigan, P. W. (2005). On the stigma of mental illness: Practical strategies for research and social change. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Corrigan, P. W., Edwards, A., Green, A., Diwan, S. L., & Penn, D. L. (2001). Prejudice, social distance, and familiarity with mental illness. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 27(2), 219–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Corrigan, P. W., Gause, M., Michaels, P. J., Buchholz, B. A., & Larson, J. E. (2015). The California Assessment of Stigma Change: A short battery to measure improvements in the public stigma of mental illness. Community Mental Health, 51(6), 635–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Corrigan, P. W., Larson, J. E., & Ruesch, N. (2009). Self-stigma and the “why try” effect: Impact on life goals and evidence-based practices. World Psychiatry, 8(2), 75–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Corrigan, P. W., & Miller, F. E. (2004). Shame, blame, and contamination: A review of the impact of mental illness stigma on family members. Journal of Mental Health, 13(6), 537–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Corrigan, P. W., & Penn, D. L. (1999). Lessons from social psychology on discrediting psychiatric stigma. American Psychologist, 54(9), 765–766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Corrigan, P. W., Rowan, D., Green, A., Lundin, R., River, P., Uphoff-Wasowski, K., et al. (2002). Challenging two mental illness stigmas: Personal responsibility and dangerousness. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 28(2), 293–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Corrigan, P. W., & Watson, A. C. (2002). The paradox of self-stigma and mental illness. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9(1), 35–53.Google Scholar
  84. Corrigan, P. W., & Watson, A. C. (2007). The stigma of psychiatric disorders and the gender, ethnicity, and education of the perceiver. Community Mental Health Journal, 43(5), 439–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Cozby, P. C. (1973). Self-disclosure: A literature review. Psychological Bulletin, 79(2), 73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Crisp, A. H., Gelder, M. G., Rix, S., Meltzer, H. I., & Rowlands, O. J. (2000). Stigmatisation of people with mental illness. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 177(1), 4–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. D’Avanzo, C. E., & Barab, S. A. (1998). Depression and anxiety among Cambodian refugee women in France and the United States. Mental Health Nursing, 19(6), 541–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Davidson, K. H., & Fristad, M. A. (2006). The Treatment Beliefs Questionnaire (TBQ): An instrument to assess beliefs about children’s mood disorders and concomitant treatment needs. Psychological Services, 3(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. de Crane, R. S., & Spielberger, C. D. (1981). Attitudes of Hispanic, Black, and Caucasian university students toward mental illness. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 3(3), 241–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. De Leon, G., Melnick, G., Kressel, D., & Jainchill, N. (1994). Circumstances, motivation, readiness, and suitability (The CMRS Scales): Predicting retention in therapeutic community treatment. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2(4), 495–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Dempster, R., Davis, D. W., Jones, V. F., Keating, A., & Wildman, B. (2015). The role of stigma in parental help—Seeking for perceived child behavior problems in urban, low-income African American parents. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 22(4), 265–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Derr, A. S. (2016). Mental health service use among immigrants in the United States: A systematic review. Psychiatric Services, 67(3), 265–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Dietrich, S., Beck, M., Bujantugs, B., Kenzine, D., Matschinger, H., & Angermeyer, M. C. (2004). The relationship between public causal beliefs and social distance toward mentally ill people. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 38(5), 348–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Dinh, K. T., Weinstein, T. L., Kim, S. Y., & Ho, I. K. (2008). Acculturative and psychological predictors of academic-related outcomes among Cambodian American high school students. Journal of Southeast Asian American Education & Advancement, 3, 1–25.Google Scholar
  95. Dishion, T. J., & Stormshak, E. A. (2007). Intervening in children’s lives: An ecological, family-centered approach to mental health care. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Downs, M. F., & Eisenberg, D. (2012). Help seeking and treatment use among suicidal college students. Journal of American College Health, 60(2), 104–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Dumas, J. E., Nissley-Tsiopinis, J., & Moreland, A. D. (2007). From intent to enrollment, attendance, and participation in preventive parenting groups. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Dunkle, J. H., & Friedlander, M. L. (1996). Contribution of therapist experience and personal characteristics to the working alliance. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(4), 456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Edwardraj, S., Mumtaj, K., Prasad, J. H., Kuruvilla, A., & Jacob, K. S. (2010). Perceptions about intellectual disability: A qualitative study from Vellore, South India. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54(8), 736–748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Eisenbruch, M. (1990). Classification of natural and supernatural causes of mental distress: Development of a Mental Distress Explanatory Model Questionnaire. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 178(11), 712–719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Eisenbruch, M. (1991). From post-traumatic stress disorder to cultural bereavement: Diagnosis of Southeast Asian refugees. Social Science and Medicine, 33(6), 673–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Fan, C. (1999). A comparison of attitudes towards mental illness and knowledge of mental health services between Australian and Asian students. Community Mental Health Journal, 35(1), 47–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Farber, B. A., Berano, K. C., & Capobianco, J. A. (2004). Clients’ perceptions of the process and consequences of self-disclosure in psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(3), 340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Farber, B. A., & Hall, D. (2002). Disclosure to therapists: What is and is not discussed in psychotherapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(4), 359–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Farina, A. (2000). The few gains and many losses for those stigmatized by psychiatric disorders. In J. H. Harvey & E. D. Miller (Eds.), Loss and Trauma: General and close relationship perspectives (pp. 183–204). Philadelphia, PA: Brunner-Routledge.Google Scholar
  106. Fekadu, Z., & Kraft, P. (2001). Self-identity in planned behavior perspective: Past behavior and its moderating effects on self-identity-intention relations. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 29(7), 671–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Feldman, D. B., & Crandall, C. S. (2007). Dimensions of mental illness stigma: What about mental illness causes social rejection? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26(2), 137–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Feng, Y., Wu, Z., Zhou, X., Zhou, Z., & Fan, W. (2006). Knowledge discovery in traditional Chinese medicine: State of the art and perspectives. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 38(3), 219–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Fischer, E. H., & Turner, J. I. (1970). Orientations to seeking professional help: Development and research utility of an attitude scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 35(1, pt. 1), 79–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (2010). Predicting and changing behavior: The reasoned action approach. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  111. Fisher, J. D., Nadler, A., & Whitcher-Alagna, S. (1982). Recipient reactions to aid. Psychological Bulletin, 91(1), 27–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Fox, C. K., Eisenberg, M. E., McMorris, B. J., Pettingell, S. L., & Borowsky, I. W. (2013). Survey of Minnesota parent attitudes regarding school-based depression and suicide screening and education. Maternal Child and Health Journal, 17(3), 456–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Fung, K., & Wong, Y. L. R. (2007). Factors influencing attitudes towards seeking professional help among East and Southeast Asian immigrant and refugee women. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 53(3), 216–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Furnham, A., & Wardley, Z. (1990). Lay theories of psychotherapy: Attitudes towards and beliefs about psychotherapy and therapists. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46, 878–890.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Gabbidon, J., Brohan, E., Clement, S., Henderson, R. C., Thornicroft, G., & MIRIAD Study Group. (2013). The development and validation of the Questionnaire on Anticipated Discrimination (QUAD). BMC Psychiatry. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-13-297.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Garratt, A. M., Bjertnaes, O. A., Holmboe, O., & Hanssen-Bauer, K. (2011). Parent experiences questionnaire for outpatient child and adolescent mental health services (PEQ-CAMHS Outpatients): reliability and validity following a national survey. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. doi: 10.1186/1753-2000-5-18.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Garvey, C., Julion, W., Fogg, L., Kratovil, A., & Gross, D. (2006). Measuring participation in a prevention trial with parents of young children. Research in Nursing & Health, 29(3), 212–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Gaylord-Harden, N. K., & Cunningham, J. A. (2009). The impact of racial discrimination and coping strategies on internalizing symptoms in African American youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(4), 532–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Gerdes, A. C., & Hoza, B. (2006). Maternal attributions, affect, and parenting in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comparison families. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35(3), 346–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Gil, A. G., Wagner, E. F., & Vega, W. A. (2000). Acculturation, familism, and alcohol use among Latino adolescent males: Longitudinal relations. Journal of Community Psychology, 28(4), 443–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Gilens, M. (1999). Why Americans hate welfare: Race, media, and the politics of antipoverty policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Gitlin, L. N., Chernett, N. L., Dennis, M. P., & Hauck, W. W. (2012). Identification of and beliefs about depressive symptoms and preferred treatment approaches among community-living older African Americans. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(11), 973–984.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Givens, J. L., Katz, I. R., Bellamy, S., & Holmes, W. C. (2007). Stigma and the acceptability of depression treatments among African Americans and whites. Society of General Internal Medicine, 22(9), 1292–1297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Goffman, E. (1963). Behavior in public place. New York: Glencoe.Google Scholar
  125. Golberstein, E., Eisenberg, D., & Gollust, S. E. (2008). Perceived stigma and mental health care seeking. Psychiatric Services, 59(4), 392–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Gopalan, G., Goldstein, L., Klingenstein, K., Sicher, C., Blake, C., & McKay, M. M. (2010). Engaging families into child mental health treatment: Updates and special considerations. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 19(3), 182–196.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Green, G., Bradby, H., Chan, A., & Lee, M. (2006). “We are not completely Westernized”: Dual medical systems and pathways to health care among Chinese migrant women in England. Social Science and Medicine, 62(6), 1498–1509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Greenberg, J. S., Kim, H. W., & Greenley, J. R. (1997). Factors associated with subjective burden in siblings of adults with severe mental illness. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67(2), 231–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Griffiths, K. M., Batterham, P. J., Barney, L., & Parsons, A. (2011). The generalised anxiety stigma scale (GASS): Psychometric properties in a community sample. BMC Psychiatry. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-11-184.Google Scholar
  130. Griffiths, K. M., Christensen, H., & Jorm, A. F. (2008). Predictors of depression stigma. BMC Psychiatry. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-8-25.Google Scholar
  131. Groleau, D., Young, A., & Kirmayer, L. J. (2006). The McGill Illness Narrative Interview (MINI): An interview schedule to elicit meanings and modes of reasoning related to illness experience. Transcultural Psychiatry, 43(4), 671–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Grover, S., Aneja, J., Sharma, A., Malhotra, R., Varma, S., Basu, D., et al. (2014). Explanatory models of somatoform disorder patients attending a psychiatry outpatient clinic: A study from North India. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 60(5), 492–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Gulliver, A., Griffiths, K., & Christensen, H. (2010). Perceived barriers and facilitators to mental health help seeking in young people: A systematic review. BMC Psychiatry Open Access. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-10-113.Google Scholar
  134. Guzder, J., Yohannes, S., & Zelkowitz, P. (2013). Help seeking of immigrant and native born parents: A qualitative study from a Montreal child day hospital. Journal of Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(4), 275–281.Google Scholar
  135. Hacking, I. (2007). Making up people. In M. Lock & J. Farquhar (Eds.), Beyond the body proper: Reading the anthropology of material life (pp. 150–163). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  136. Haidet, P., O’Malley, K. J., Sharf, B. F., Gladney, A. P., Greisinger, A. J., & Street, R. L., Jr. (2008). Characterizing explanatory models of illness in healthcare: Development and validation of the CONNECT instrument. Patient Education and Counseling, 73(2), 232–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Hartog, K., & Gow, K. M. (2005). Religious attributions pertaining to the causes and cures of mental illness. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 8(4), 263–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Harwood, A. (1981). Ethnicity and medical care. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  139. Hays, P. A. (1996). Addressing the complexities of culture and gender in counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 74(4), 332–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Heather, N., & Rollnick, S. (1993). Readiness to change questionnaire: User’s manual (revised version). National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, Technical Report No. 19.
  141. Helms, J. E., & Carter, R. T. (1991). Relationships of White and Black racial identity attitudes and demographic similarity to counselor preferences. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(4), 446–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Helms, J. E., & Cook, D. A. (1999). Using race and culture in counseling and psychotherapy: Theory and process. London: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  143. Hill, D. J., & Bale, R. M. (1980). Development of the mental health locus of control and mental health locus of origin scales. Journal of Personality Assessment, 44(2), 148–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Hinkelman, L., & Granello, D. H. (2003). Biological sex, adherence to traditional gender roles, and attitudes toward persons with mental illness: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(4), 259–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Hinshaw, S. P. (2005). The stigmatization of mental illness in children and parents: Developmental issues, family concerns, and research needs. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(7), 714–734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Hinton, D. E., Kredlow, M. A., Pich, V., Bui, E., & Hofmann, S. G. (2013). The relationship of PTSD to key somatic complaints and cultural syndrome among Cambodian refugees attending a psychiatric clinic: the Cambodian Somatic Symptom and Syndrome Inventory (CSSI). Transcultural Psychiatry, 50(3), 347–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Hinton, D. E., Nickerson, A., & Bryant, R. A. (2014). Prolonged grief in Cambodian refugees following genocide: Rebirth concerns and avoidance of reminders. Journal of Loss and Trauma: International Perspectives on Stress & Coping, 18(5), 444–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Hinton, D. E., Rasmussen, A., Nou, L., Pollack, M. H., & Good, M. J. (2009). Anger, PTSD, and the nuclear family: A study of Cambodian refugees. Social Science and Medicine, 69(9), 1387–1394.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Hirai, M., & Clum, G. A. (2000). Development, reliability, and validity of the beliefs toward mental illness scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 22(3), 221–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Ho, M. K. (1984). Social group work with Asian Americans. Social Casework, 57(3), 195–201.Google Scholar
  151. Hoagwood, K. E., Cavaleri, M. A., Olin, S. S., Burns, B. J., Slaton, E., Gruttadaro, D., et al. (2010). Family support in children’s mental health: A review and synthesis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 13(1), 1–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Hoge, C. W., Castro, C. A., Messer, S. C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D. I., & Koffman, R. L. (2004). Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care. The New England Journal of Medicine, 351(1), 13–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Hom, M. A., Stanley, I. H., & Joiner, T. E., Jr. (2015). Evaluating factors and interventions that influence help seeking and mental health service utilization among suicidal individuals: A review of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 40, 28–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Horvath, A. O. (2001). The alliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, research, practice, training, 38(4), 365–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Horvath, A. O., & Bedi, R. P. (2002). The alliance. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work (pp. 37–70). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  156. Horvath, A. O., & Greenberg, L. S. (1989). Development and validation of the Working Alliance Inventory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36(2), 223–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Horvath, A. O., & Symonds, B. D. (1991). Relation between working alliance and outcome in psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(2), 139–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Horwitz, A. (1978). Family, kin, and friend networks in psychiatric help-seeking. Social Science and Medicine, 12(4A), 297–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Hovey, J. D., & Magaña, C. G. (2002). Exploring the mental health of Mexican migrant farm workers in the Midwest: Psychosocial predictors of psychological distress and suggestions for prevention and treatment. The Journal of Psychology, 136(5), 493–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Howard, K. I., Cornille, T. A., Lyons, J. S., Vessey, J. T., Lueger, R. J., & Saunders, S. M. (1996). Patterns of mental health service utilization. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 696–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Hsiao, F. H., Klimidis, S., Minas, H. I., & Tan, E. S. (2006). Folk concepts of mental disorders among Chinese-Australian patients and their caregivers. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 55(1), 58–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Hsieh, D., & Kirk, S. (2003). The effect of social context on psychiatrists’ judgments of adolescent antisocial behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(6), 877–887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Hutchinson, M., & Dorsett, P. (2012). What does the literature say about resilience in refugee people? Implications for practice. Journal of Social Inclusion, 3(2), 55–78.Google Scholar
  164. Hwang, S. K., & Charnley, H. (2010). Making the familiar strange and making the strange familiar: Understanding Korean children’s experiences of living with an autistic sibling. Disability & Society, 25(5), 579–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Hwang, W., & Goto, S. (2008). The effects of racial discrimination on minority college students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14(4), 326–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Insel, T. R. (2009). Translating scientific opportunity into public health impact: a strategic plan for research on mental illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(2), 128–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Interian, A., Lewis-Fernández, R., & Dixon, L. B. (2013). Improving treatment engagement of underserved US racial-ethnic groups: a review of recent interventions. Psychiatric Services, 64(3), 212–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Interian, A., Martinez, I. E., Guarnaccia, P. J., Vega, W. A., & Escobar, J. I. (2007). A qualitative analysis of the perception of stigma among Latinos receiving antidepressants. Psychiatric Services, 58(12), 1591–1594.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Johnson, H. C., Cournoyer, D. E., Fisher, G. A., McQuillan, B. E., Moriarty, S., Richert, A. L., et al. (2000). Children’s emotional and behavioral disorders: Attributions of parental responsibility by professionals. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(3), 327–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Johnson, H. C., Cournoyer, D. E., Fliri, J., Flynn, M., Grant, A., Lant, M., et al. (2003). Are we parent-friendly? Views of parents of children with emotional and behavioral disabilities. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 84(1), 95–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Johnston, C., & Freeman, W. S. (1997). Attributions for child behavior in parents of children without behavior disorders and children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(4), 636–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Johnston, C., & Freeman, W. S. (2002). Parents’ beliefs about ADHD: implications for assessment and treatment. ADHD Report, 10(1), 6–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Johnston, C., Seipp, C., Hommersen, P., Hoza, B., & Fine, S. (2005). Treatment choices and experiences in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder: Relations to parents’ beliefs and attributions. Child: Care, Health and Development, 31(6), 669–677.Google Scholar
  174. Jorm, A. F. (2000). Mental health literacy: Public knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177(5), 396–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Jorm, A. F., Korten, A. E., Jacomb, P. A., Christensen, H., Rogers, B., & Pollitt, P. (1997). Mental health literacy: A survey of the public’s ability to recognise mental disorders and their beliefs about the effectiveness of treatment. Medical Journal Australia, 166(4), 182–186.Google Scholar
  176. Jourard, S. M. (1964). The transparent self: Self-disclosure and well-being. Cambridge, MA: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  177. Kazdin, A., Holland, L., Crowley, M., & Breton, S. (1997). Barriers to treatment participation scale: Evaluation and validation in the context of child outpatient treatment. Journal for Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(8), 1051–1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Kellison, I., Bussing, R., Bell, L., & Garvan, C. (2010). Assessment of stigma associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Psychometric evaluation of the ADHD Stigma Questionnaire. Psychiatry Research, 178(2), 363–369.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Kelly, A. E., & Achter, J. A. (1995). Self-concealment and attitudes toward counseling in university students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42(1), 40–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P. A., Bruce, M. L., Koch, R., Laska, E. M., Leaf, P. J., et al. (2001). The prevalence and correlates of untreated serious mental illness. Health Services Research, 36(6, pt.1), 987–1007.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  181. Kim, G., Loi, C. X. A., Chiriboga, D. A., Jang, Y., Parmelee, P., & Allen, R. S. (2011). Limited English proficiency as a barrier to mental health service use: A study of Latino and Asian immigrants with psychiatric disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(1), 104–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Kim, J. E., & Zane, N. (2016). Help-seeking intentions among Asian American and White American students in psychological distress: Application of the Health Belief Model. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 22(3), 311–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. King, M., Dinos, S., Shaw, J., Watson, R., Stevens, S., Passetti, F., et al. (2007). The Stigma Scale: Development of a standardised measure of the stigma of mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190(3), 248–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. King, S., Rosenbaum, P., & King, G. (1996). Parents’ perceptions of caregiving: Development and validation of a measure of processes. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 38(9), 757–772.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Kirk, S., & Hsieh, D. (2004). Diagnostic consistency in assessing conduct disorder: An experiment on the effect of social context. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74(1), 43–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Kirk, S. A., Wakefield, J. C., Hsieh, D., & Pottick, K. J. (1999). Social context and social workers’ judgments of mental disorder. Social Service Review, 73, 82–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Kirmayer, L. J. (2001). Cultural variations in the clinical presentation of depression and anxiety: Implications for diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62(Suppl. 13), 22–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Kleinknecht, R. A., Dinnel, D. L., & Kleinknecht, E. E. (1997). Cultural factors in social anxiety: A comparison of social phobia symptoms and Taijin Kyofusho. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11(2), 157–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Kleinman, A. (1978). Concepts and a model for the comparison of medical systems as cultural systems. Social Science and Medicine, 12(2b), 85–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Kleinman, A. (1980). Patients and healers in the context of culture: An exploration of the borderland between anthropology, medicine, and psychiatry (Vol. 3). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  191. Kleinman, A. (1987). Anthropology and psychiatry: The role of culture in cross-cultural research on illness. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 151(4), 447–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Kleinman, A. (2004). Culture and depression. The New England Journal of Medicine, 351(10), 951–953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Komiya, N., Good, G. E., & Sherrod, N. B. (2000). Emotional openness as a predictor of college students’ attitudes toward seeking psychological help. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(1), 138–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Koro-Ljungberg, M., & Bussing, R. (2009). The management of courtesy stigma in the lives of families with teenagers with ADHD. Journal of Family Issues, 30(9), 1175–1200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Kuhl, J., Jarkon-Horlick, L., & Morrissey, R. F. (1997). Measuring barriers to help-seeking behavior in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26(6), 637–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Kung, W. W. (2004). Cultural and practical barriers to seeking mental health treatment for Chinese Americans. Journal of Community Psychology, 32(1), 27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Kuriyama, S. (2002). The divergence of Greek and Chinese medicine. New York: Zone Books.Google Scholar
  198. Kushner, M. G., & Sher, K. J. (1989). Fear of psychological treatment and its relation to mental health service avoidance. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 20(4), 251–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. LaFromboise, T., & Dixon, D. N. (1980). American Indian perception of trustworthiness in a counseling interview. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28(2), 135–139.Google Scholar
  200. Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33(1), 159–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Lau, A. S. (2006). Making the case for selective and directed cultural adaptations of evidence-based treatments: Examples from parent training. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 13(4), 295–310.Google Scholar
  202. Lawton, K. E., Gerdes, A. C., Haack, L. M., & Schneider, B. (2014). Acculturation, cultural values, and Latino parental beliefs about the etiology of ADHD. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 41(2), 189–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Lee, J., Friesen, B. J., Walker, J. S., Colman, D., & Donlan, W. E. (2014). Youth’s help-seeking intentions for ADHD and depression: Findings from a national survey. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(1), 144–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Lee, S., Lee, M. T. Y., Chiu, M. Y. L., & Kleinman, A. (2005). Experience of social stigma by people with schizophrenia in Hong Kong. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186(2), 153–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Lee, S., & Wong, K. C. (1995). Rethinking neurasthenia: The illness concepts of shenjing shuairuo among Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 19(1), 91–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Leong, F. T. L., & Lau, A. S. L. (2001). Barriers to providing effective mental health services to Asian Americans. Mental Health Services Research, 3(4), 201–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Lin, N., Dean, A., & Ensel, W. M. (1981). Social Support Scales: A methodological note. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 7(1), 73–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Lind, A. (2004). Legislating the family: Heterosexual bias in social welfare policy frameworks. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 31(4), 21–35.Google Scholar
  209. Link, B. G. (1987). Understanding labeling effects in the area of mental disorders: An assessment of the effects of expectations on rejection. American Sociological Review, 52(1), 96–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Liu, Z., Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., Chen, Z., & Hannak, W. (2014). Developing a Chinese PTSD Inventory (CPI) based on interviews with earthquake victims in Sichuan. PsyCh Journal, 3(2), 101–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Lloyd, K. R., Jacob, K. S., Patel, V., St. Louis, L., Bhurga, D., & Mann, A. H. (1998). The development of the Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI) and its use among primary-care attenders with common mental disorders. Psychological Medicine, 28(5), 1231–1237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Loo, C., Tong, B., & True, R. H. (1989). A bitter bean: Mental health status and attitudes in Chinatown. Journal of Community Psychology, 17(4), 283–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Mackenzie, C. S., Knox, V. J., Gekoski, W. L., & Macaulay, H. L. (2004). An adaptation and extension of the attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help scale. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33(11), 2410–2435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Mah, J. W., & Johnston, C. (2007). Cultural variations in mothers’ attributions: Influence of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 38(2), 135–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Mak, W. W., Cheung, R. Y., Law, R. W., Woo, J., Li, P. C., & Chung, R. W. (2007). Examining attribution model of self-stigma on social support and psychological well-being among people with HIV+/AIDS. Social Science and Medicine, 64(8), 1549–1559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Mak, W. W. S. (2005). Integrative model of caregiving: How macro and micro factors affect caregivers of adults with severe and persistent mental illness. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75(1), 40–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Mak, W. W. S., & Cheung, R. Y. M. (2008). Affiliate stigma among caregivers of people with intellectual disability or mental illness. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 21(6), 532–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Mak, W. W. S., & Cheung, R. Y. M. (2012). Psychological distress and subjective burden of caregivers of people with mental illness: The role of affiliate stigma and face concern. Community Mental Health Journal, 48(3), 270–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Makanjuola, R. O. A. (1987). Ode Ori’: A culture-bound disorder with prominent somatic features in Yoruba Nigerian patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 75(3), 231–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Malacrida, C. (2001). Motherhood, resistance and attention deficit disorder: Strategies and limits. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 38(2), 141–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Marlowe, J. (2009). Accessing authentic knowledge: Being and doing with the Sudanese community. Australian Community Psychologist, 21(1), 39–49.Google Scholar
  223. Marsh, J., Burke, C., & De Los Reyes, A. (2016). The sweet spot of clinical intuitions: Predictors of the effects of context on impressions of conduct disorder symptoms. Psychological Assessment, 28(2), 181–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Martin, J. K., Pescosolido, B. A., Olafsdottir, S., & Mcleod, J. D. (2007). The construction of fear: Americans’ preferences for social distance from children and adolescents with mental health problems. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 48(1), 50–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Martin, J., Romas, M., Medford, M., Leffert, N., & Hatcher, S. L. (2006). Adult helping qualities preferred by adolescents. Adolescence, 41(161), 127–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Masuda, A., Price, M., Anderson, P., Schmertz, S. K., & Calamaras, M. (2009). The role of psychological flexibility in mental health stigma and psychological distress for the stigmatizer. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(10), 1244–1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Mathews, M. (2008). Explanatory models for mental illness endorsed by Christian clergymen: The development and use of an instrument in Singapore. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 11(3), 287–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Mathews, M. (2011). Assessment and comparison of culturally based explanations for mental disorder among Singaporean Chinese youth. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 57(1), 3–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Matsuoka, J. K., Breaux, C., & Ryujin, D. H. (1997). National utilization of mental health services by Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. Journal of Community Psychology, 25(2), 141–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. McCabe, K. M. (2002). Factors that predict premature termination among Mexican-American children in outpatient psychotherapy. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11(3), 347–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. McConnaughy, E. A., Prochaska, J. O., & Velicer, W. F. (1983). Stages of change in psychotherapy: Measurement and sample profiles. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 20(3), 368–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. McKay, M. M., & Bannon, W. M., Jr. (2004). Engaging families in child mental health services. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 13(4), 905–921.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. McKay, M. M., Chasse, K. T., Paikoff, R., McKinney, L. D., Baptiste, D., Coleman, D., et al. (2004). Family-level impact of the CHAMP Family Program: A community collaborative effort to support urban families and reduce youth HIV risk exposure. Family Process, 43(1), 79–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. McLoyd, V. C. (1998). Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. American Psychologist, 53(2), 185–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Mehta, S. I., & Farina, A. (1988). Associative stigma: Perceptions of the difficulties of college-aged children of stigmatized fathers. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 7(2–3), 192–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Messent, P. (1992). Working with Bangladeshi families in the east end of London. Journal of Family Therapy, 14(3), 287–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Miller, W. R. (1985). Motivation for treatment: A review with special emphasis on alcoholism. Psychological Bulletin, 98(1), 84–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Milstein, G., Guarnaccia, P. J., & Midlarsky, E. (1995). Ethnic differences in the interpretation of mental illness: Perspectives of caregivers. Research in Community and Mental Health, 8, 155–180.Google Scholar
  239. Min, S. K., Suh, S., & Song, K. (2009). Symptoms to use for diagnostic criteria of Hwa-Byung, an anger syndrome. Psychiatry Investigations, 6(1), 7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Miville, M., & Constantine, M. (2007). Sociocultural predictors of psychological help-seeking attitudes and behavior among Mexican American college students. Peace Research Abstracts Journal, 44(3), 420–432.Google Scholar
  241. Mollica, R. F., Caspi-Yavin, Y., Bollini, P., Truong, T., Tor, S., & Lavelle, J. (1992). The Harvard Trauma questionnaire. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 180(2), 111–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Mollica, R. F., Donelan, K., Tor, S., Lavelle, J., Elias, C., Frankel, M., et al. (1993). The effect of trauma and confinement on functional health and mental health status of Cambodians living in Thailand-Cambodia border camps. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270(5), 581–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Moses, T. (2009). Stigma and self-concept among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 79(2), 261–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Moses, T. (2010). Adolescent mental health consumers’ self-stigma: Associations with parents’ and adolescents’ illness perceptions and parental stigma. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(6), 781–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Moses, T. (2011). Stigma apprehension among adolescents discharged from brief psychiatric hospitalization. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 199(10), 778–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Moskos, M. A., Olson, L., Halbern, S. R., & Gray, D. (2007). Utah youth suicide study: Barriers to mental health treatment for adolescents. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 37(2), 179–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Moss-Morris, R., Weinman, J., Petrie, K. J., Horne, R., Cameron, L. D., & Buick, D. (2002). The revised illness perception questionnaire (IPQ-R). Psychology and Health, 17(1), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Muhlbauer, S. A. (2002). Navigating the storm of mental illness: phases in the family’s journey. Qualitative Health Research, 12(8), 1076–1092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Mukolo, A., & Heflinger, C. A. (2011). Factors associated with attributions about child health conditions and social distance preference. Community Mental Health Journal, 47(3), 286–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Murdock, G. P., Wilson, S. F., & Frederick, V. (1980). World distribution of theories of illness. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 17(1/2), 37–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Murguia, A., Zea, M. C., Reisen, C. A., & Peterson, R. A. (2000). The development of the cultural health attributions questionnaire (CHAQ). Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 6(3), 268–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Myers, H. F., Lesser, I., Rodriguez, N., Mira, C. B., Hwang, W., Camp, C., et al. (2002). Ethnic differences in clinical presentation of depression in adult women. Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Psychology, 8, 138–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Nadler, A. (1986a). Help seeking as a natural phenomenon: Differences between city and kibbutz dwellers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(5), 976–982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Nadler, A. (1986b). Self-esteem and the seeking and receiving of help: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. In B. Maher & W. Maher (Eds.), Progress in experimental personality research (Vol. 14, pp. 115–163). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  255. Nash, M., Wong, J., & Trlin, A. (2006). Civic and social integration: A new field of social work practice with immigrants, refugees and asylum seekers. International Social Work, 49(3), 345–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Neubeck, K. J., & Cazenave, N. A. (2001). Welfare racism: Playing the race card against America’s poor. Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  257. New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. (2003). Achieving the promise: Transforming mental health care in America. Final report (Pub No. SMA-03-3832). Bethesda, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  258. Nguyen, Q. C. X., & Anderson, L. P. (2005). Vietnamese Americans’ attitudes toward seeking mental health services: relation to cultural variables. Journal of Community Psychology, 33(2), 213–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Nickerson, K. J., Helms, J. E., & Terrell, F. (1994). Cultural mistrust, opinions about mental illness, and Black students’ attitudes toward seeking psychological help from White counselors. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 41(3), 378–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Nock, M. K., & Ferriter, C. (2005). Parent management of attendance and adherence in child and adolescent therapy: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8(2), 149–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Nock, M. K., & Kazdin, A. E. (2005). Randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention for increasing participation in parent management training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(5), 872–879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Nock, M. K., & Photos, V. (2006). Parent motivation to participate in treatment: Assessment and prediction of subsequent participation. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(3), 345–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Norberg, M. M., Wetterneck, C. T., Sass, D. A., & Kanter, J. W. (2011). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Milwaukee psychotherapy expectations questionnaire. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(6), 574–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Norquist, G. S., & Regier, D. A. (1996). The epidemiology of psychiatric disorders and the de facto mental health care system. Annual Review of Medicine, 47(1), 473–479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Okamoto, S. K., Helm, S., Po‘a-Kekuawela, K., Chin, C. I. H., & Nebre, L. H. (2009). Community risk and resiliency factors related to drug use of rural Native Hawaiian youth: An exploratory study. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 8, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Orlinsky, D. E., Ronnestad, M. H., & Willutzki, U. (2004). Fifty years of psychotherapy process-outcome research: Continuity and change. In M. J. Lambert (Ed.), Bergin and Garfield’s Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change (5th ed., pp. 307–389). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  267. Orloff, A. S. (2002). Explaining US welfare reform: Power, gender, race and the US policy legacy. Critical Social Policy, 22(1), 96–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Pan, D., Huey, S. J., Jr., & Hernandez, D. (2011). Culturally adapted versus standard exposure treatment for phobic Asian Americans: Treatment efficacy, moderators, and predictors. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17(1), 11–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Paradis, C., Friedman, S., Hinton, D. E., McNally, R. J., Solomon, L. Z., & Lyons, K. A. (2009). The assessment of the phenomenology of sleep paralysis: The unusual sleep experiences questionnaire (USEQ). CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 15(3), 220–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Parcesepe, A. M., & Cabassa, L. J. (2013). Public stigma of mental illness in the United States: A systematic literature review. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 40(5), 384–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Park, A. S. (1993). The wounded heart of god: The Asian concept of han and the christian doctrine of sin. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press.Google Scholar
  272. Park, Y. J., Ryu, H., Han, K. S., Kwon, J. H., Kim, H. K., Kang, H. C., et al. (2010). Anger, anger expression, and suicidal ideation in Korean adolescents. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 24(3), 168–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Patel, S., & Bakken, S. (2010). Preferences for participation in decision making among ethnically diverse patients with anxiety and depression. Community Mental Health Journal, 46(5), 466–473.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Patterson, G. R., & Forgatch, M. S. (1985). Therapist behavior as a determinant for client noncompliance: A paradox for the behavior modifier. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53(6), 846–851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Pescosolido, B. A. (2013). The public stigma of mental illness what do we think; what do we know; what can we prove? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 54(1), 1–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Pescosolido, B. A., Jensen, P. S., Martin, J. K., Perry, B. L., Olafsdottir, S., & Fettes, D. (2008). Public knowledge and assessment of child mental health problems: Findings from the National Stigma Study-Children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(3), 339–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Petrie, K. J., Jago, L. A., & Devcich, D. A. (2007). The role of illness perceptions in patients with medical conditions. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 20(2), 163–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Phan, T., Steel, Z., & Silove, D. (2004). An ethnographically derived measure of anxiety, depression and somatization: The Phan Vietnamese Psychiatric Scale. Transcultural Psychiatry, 41(2), 200–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Phelan, J. C., Bromet, E. J., & Link, B. G. (1998). Psychiatric illness and family stigma. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 24(1), 115–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Phillips, M. R., Li, Y., Stroup, S., & Xin, L. (2000). Causes of schizophrenia reported by patients’ family members in China. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177(1), 20–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Pinfold, V., Toumin, H., Thornicroft, G., Huxley, P., Farmer, P., & Graham, T. (2003). Reducing psychiatric stigma and discrimination: Evaluation of educational interventions in UK secondary schools. BMC Psychiatry, 182(4), 342–346.Google Scholar
  282. Pinto, M. D., Hickman, R., Logsdon, M. C., & Burant, C. (2012). Psychometric evaluation of the revised attribution questionnaire (r-AQ) to measure mental illness stigma in adolescents. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 20(1), 47–58.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Pirutinsky, S., Rosen, D. D., Shapiro Safran, R., & Rosmarin, D. H. (2010). Do medical models of mental illness relate to increased or decreased stigmatization of mental illness among Orthodox Jews? The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198(7), 508–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Portes, A. (1997). Immigration theory for a new century: Some problems and opportunities. International Migration Review, 31(4), 799–825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Pottick, K. J., & Davis, D. M. (2001). Attributions of responsibility for children’s mental health problems: Parents and professionals at odds. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 71, 426–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Pottick, K. J., Kirk, S. A., Hsieh, D. K., & Tian, X. (2007). Judging mental disorder: Effects of client, clinician, and contextual differences. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Pottick, K. J., Wakefield, J. C., Kirk, S. A., & Tian, X. (2003). Influence of social workers’ characteristics on the perception of mental disorder in youths. Social Service Review, 77, 431–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Pottick, K.J., & Warner, L.A. (2002). More than 115,000 disadvantaged preschoolers receive mental health services (report #1-2). Update: Latest findings in children’s mental health. Retrieved from Rutgers University, Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging Research. Accessed 20 February 2017.
  289. Prelow, H. M., Danoff-Burg, S., Swenson, R. R., & Pulgiano, D. (2004). The impact of ecological risk and perceived discrimination on the psychological adjustment of African American and European American youth. Journal of Community Psychology, 32(4), 375–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Price, P. B., & Jones, E. E. (1998). Examining the alliance using the Psychotherapy Process Q-Set. Psychotherapy, 25(3), 392–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Prince, R. (1962). The “brain fag” syndrome in Nigerian students. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 106(443), 559–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Raftery, J. N., Steinke, C. M., & Nickerson, A. B. (2010). Engagement, residual treatment of staff cognitive and behavioral disputations, and youths’ problem-solving. Child & Youth Care Forum, 39(1), 167–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Rao, D., Feinglass, J., & Corrigan, P. (2007). Racial and ethnic disparities in mental illness stigma. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195(12), 1020–1023.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Richardson, L. A. (2001). Seeking and obtaining mental health services: What do parents expect? Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 15(5), 223–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Ridley, C. R. (1984). Clinical treatment of the nondisclosing Black client: A therapeutic paradox. American Psychologist, 39(11), 1234–1244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Rodrigues, L., Calheiros, M., & Pereira, C. (2015). The decision of out-of-home placement in residential care after parental neglect: Empirically testing a psychosocial model. Child Abuse and Neglect, 49, 35–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Rose, A., Peters, N., Shea, J. A., & Armstrong, K. (2004). Development and testing of the health care system distrust scale. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 19(4), 57–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Rosenbloom, S. R., & Way, N. (2004). Experiences of discrimination among African American, Asian American, and Latino adolescents in an urban high school. Youth & Society, 35(4), 420–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Rostain, A. L., Power, T. J., & Atkins, M. S. (1993). Assessing parents’ willingness to pursue treatment for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(1), 175–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Ruedell, K., Bhui, K., & Priebe, S. (2009). Concept development and application of a new mixed method assessment of cultural variations in illness perceptions. Journal of Health Psychology, 14(2), 336–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Ryan, R. M., Plant, R. W., & O’Malley, S. (1995). Initial motivations for alcohol treatment: Relations with patient characteristics, treatment involvement, and dropout. Addictive Behaviors, 20(3), 279–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Ryder, A. G., Yang, J., Zhu, X., Yao, S., Yi, J., Heine, S. J., et al. (2008). The cultural shaping of depression: Somatic symptoms in China, psychological symptoms in North America? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117(2), 300–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Salmán, E., Liebowitz, M. R., Guarnaccia, P. J., Jusino, C. M., Garfinkel, R., Street, L., et al. (1998). Subtypes of ataques de nervios: The influence of coexisting psychiatric diagnosis. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 22(2), 231–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Sanders Thompson, V. L., Bazile, A., & Akbar, M. (2004). African Americans’ perceptions of psychotherapy and psychotherapists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35(1), 19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Saunders, S. M. (1993). Applicants’ experience of the process of seeking therapy. Psychotherapy, 30(4), 554–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Scheff, T. J. (1966). Being mentally Ill: A sociological theory. Chicago, IL: Aldine.Google Scholar
  307. Schnurr, P. P., & Green, B. L. (2004). Understanding relationships among trauma, post-tramatic stress disorder, and health outcomes. Advances in Mind-body Medicine, 20(1), 18–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Schomerus, G., Matschinger, H., & Angermeyer, M. C. (2014). Causal beliefs of the public and social acceptance of persons with mental illness: A comparative analysis of schizophrenia, depression and alcohol dependence. Psychological Medicine, 44(2), 303–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Scior, K., & Furnham, A. (2011). Development and validation of the Intellectual Disability Literacy Scale for assessment of knowledge, beliefs and attitudes to intellectual disability. Developmental Disabilities, 32, 1530–1541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Scuglik, D. L., Alarcón, R. D., Lapeyre, A. C., Williams, M. D., & Logan, K. M. (2007). When the poetry no longer rhymes: Mental health issues among Somali immigrants in the USA. Transcultural Psychiatry, 44(4), 581–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Seaton, E. K., Caldwell, C. H., Sellers, R. M., & Jackson, J. S. (2008). The prevalence of perceived discrimination among African American and Caribbean Black youth. Developmental Psychology, 44(5), 1288–1297.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Seiffge-Krenke, I., & Shulman, S. (1990). Coping style in adolescence. A cross-cultural study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 21(3), 351–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Shapiro, E. G. (1983). Embarrassment and help-seeking. In B. M. DePaulo, A. Nadler, & J. Fisher (Eds.), New directions in helping (Vol. 2, pp. 143–163)., Help seeking New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  314. Shapiro, D., & Shapiro, D. (1987). Change processes in psychotherapy. Addiction, 82(4), 431–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Shibre, T., Negash, A., Kullgren, G., Kebede, D., Alem, A., Fekadu, A., et al. (2001). Perception of stigma among family members of individuals with schizophrenia and major affective disorders in rural Ethiopia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 36(6), 299–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Shin, J. K. (2002). Help-seeking behaviors by Korean immigrants for depression. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 23(5), 461–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Shirk, S. R., & Karver, M. (2003). Prediction of treatment outcome from relationship variables in child and adolescent therapy: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(3), 452–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Shokoohi-Yekta, M., & Retish, P. M. (1991). Attitudes of Chinese and American male students towards mental illness. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 37(3), 192–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Simon, D., Schorr, G., Wirtz, M., Vodermaier, A., Caspari, C., Neuner, B., et al. (2006). Development and first validation of the shared decision-making questionnaire (SDM-Q). Patient and Education Counseling, 63(3), 319–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Singh, I. (2004). Doing their jobs: Mothering with Ritalin in a culture of mother-blame. Social Science and Medicine, 59(6), 1193–1205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Snowden, L. R. (2003). Bias in mental health assessment and intervention: Theory and evidence. American Journal of Public Health, 93(2), 239–243.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., & Balding, J. (1993). British parents’ belief about the causes of three forms of childhood psychological disturbance. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21(4), 367–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Spencer, M. S., & Chen, J. (2004). Effect of discrimination on mental health service utilization among Chinese Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 94(5), 809–814.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Stacciarini, J. M., Shattell, M. M., Coady, M., & Wiens, B. (2011). Review: Community-based participatory research approach to address mental health in minority populations. Community Mental Health Journal, 47(5), 489–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Staudt, M. (1999). Barriers and facilitators to use of services following intensive family preservation services. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 26(1), 39–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Staudt, M. (2007). Treatment engagement with caregivers of at-risk children: Gaps in research and conceptualization. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16(2), 183–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Steel, Z., Silove, D., Phan, T., & Bauman, A. (2002). Long-term effect of psychological trauma on the mental health of Vietnamese refugees resettled in Australia: A population-based study. The Lancet, 360(9339), 1056–1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Stefl, M. E., & Prosperi, D. C. (1985). Barriers to mental health service utilization. Community Mental Health Journal, 21(3), 167–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Stengler-Wenzke, K., Trosbach, J., Dietrich, S., & Angermeyer, M. C. (2004). Experience of stigmatization by relatives of patients with obsessive compulsive disorder. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 18(3), 88–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Stone, L., & Finlay, W. M. L. (2008). A comparison of African-Caribbean and white European young adults’ conceptions of schizophrenia symptoms and the diagnostic label. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 54(3), 242–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Stormshak, E. A., Dishion, T. J., Light, J., & Yasui, M. (2005). Implementing family-centered interventions within the public middle school: Linking service delivery to change in problem behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 723–733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Strong, S. R., & Claiborn, C. D. (1982). Change through interaction: Social psychological processes of counseling and psychotherapy. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  333. Struening, E. L., Perlick, D. A., Link, B. G., Hellman, F., Herman, D., & Sirey, J. A. (2001). Stigma as a barrier to recovery: The extent to which caregivers believe most people devalue consumers and their families. Psychiatric Services, 52(12), 1633–1638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Sue, S. (1977). Community mental health services to minority groups: Some optimism, some pessimism. American Psychologist, 32(8), 616–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Sue, S. (1998). In search of cultural competence in psychotherapy and counseling. American Psychologist, 53(4), 440–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Sue, S. (2006). Cultural competency: From philosophy to research and practice. Journal of Community Psychology, 34(2), 237–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Sue, S., Cheng, J. K. Y., Saad, C. S., & Chu, J. P. (2012). Asian American mental health: A call to action. American Psychologist, 67(7), 532–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Sue, S., & Sue, D. (1974). MMPI comparisons between Asian-American and non-Asian American students utilizing a student health psychiatric clinic. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 21(5), 423–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2003). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  340. Sun, B., Fan, N., Nie, S., Zhang, M., Huang, X., He, H., et al. (2014). Attitudes toward people with mental illness among psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, involved family members and the general population in a large city in Guangzhou, China. International Journal of Mental Health Systems. doi: 10.1186/1752-4458-8-26.Google Scholar
  341. Surgeon General. (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, and ethnicity. A supplement to mental health: a report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  342. Takeuchi, D. T., Leaf, P. J., & Kuo, H. (1988). Ethnic differences in the perception of barriers to help-seeking. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 23(4), 273–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Tarakeshwar, N., Stanton, J., & Pargament, K. I. (2003). Religion an overlooked dimension in cross-cultural psychology. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34(4), 377–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Taylor, S. M., & Dear, M. J. (1981). Scaling Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 7(2), 225–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. Terrell, F., & Terrell, S. (1981). An inventory to measure cultural mistrust among Blacks. Western Journal of Black Studies, 5(3), 180–185.Google Scholar
  346. Terrell, F., & Terrell, S. (1984). Race of counselor, client sex, cultural mistrust level, and premature termination from counseling among Black clients. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(3), 371–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Tetley, A., Jinks, M., Huband, N., & Howells, K. (2011). A systematic review of measures of therapeutic engagement in psychosocial and psychological treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(9), 927–941.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Thakker, J., & Ward, T. (1998). Culture and classification: The cross-cultural application of the DSM-IV. Clinical Psychology Review, 18(5), 501–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Thompson, E. H., Jr., & Doll, W. (1982). The burden of families coping with the mentally Ill: An invisible crisis. Family Relations, 31(3), 379–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. Thurston, I. B., Phares, V., Coates, E. E., & Bogart, L. M. (2015). Child problem recognition and help-seeking intentions among black and white parents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44(4), 604–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Tinsley, H. E. A., Workman, K. R., & Kass, R. A. (1980). Factor analysis of the domain of client expectancies about counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 27(6), 561–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Tsang, H. W. H., Fung, K. M. T., & Corrigan, P. W. (2006). Psychosocial treatment compliance scale for people with psychotic disorders. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(6–7), 561–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Tseng, W. S., Asai, M., Jieqiu, L., Wibulswasdi, P., Suryani, L. K., Wen, J. K., et al. (1990). Multi-cultural study of minor psychiatric disorders in Asia: Symptom manifestations. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 36(4), 252–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, and ethnicity. A supplement to mental health: A report of the surgeon general. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  355. Uba, L. (1982). Meeting the mental health needs of Asian Americans: Mainstream or segregated services. Professional Psychology, 13(2), 215–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Uomoto, J. M., & Gorsuch, R. L. (1984). Japanese American response to psychological disorder: Referral patterns, attitudes, and subjective norms. American Journal of Community Psychology, 12(5), 537–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, and ethnicity. A supplement to mental health: A report of the surgeon general. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  358. Van der Helm, G. H. P., Wissink, I. B., De Jongh, T., & Stams, G. J. J. M. (2012). Measuring treatment motivation in secure juvenile facilities. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 57(8), 996–1008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Vega, W. A., & Gil, A. G. (1998). Drug use and ethnicity in early adolescence. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  360. Vega, W. A., Kolody, B., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., & Catalano, R. (1999). Gaps in service utilization by Mexican Americans with mental health problems. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(6), 928–934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Vogel, D. L., Wade, N. G., & Haake, S. (2006). Measuring the self-stigma associated with seeking psychological help. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(3), 325–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Vogel, D. L., & Wester, S. R. (2003). To seek help or not to seek help: The risks of self-disclosure. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50(3), 351–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Wakefield, J. C., Kirk, S. A., Pottick, K. J., & Hsieh, D. (1999). Disorder attribution and clinical judgment in the assessment of adolescent antisocial behavior. Social Work Research, 23, 227–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Wang, J., & Lai, D. (2008). The relationship between mental health literacy, personal contacts and personal stigma against depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 110(1–2), 191–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Wang, P. S., Lane, M., Olfson, M., Pincus, H. A., Wells, K. B., & Kessler, R. C. (2005). Twelve-month use of mental health services in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 629–640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Watson, A. C., Corrigan, P., Larson, J. E., & Sells, M. (2007). Self-stigma in people with mental illness. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33(6), 1312–1318.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. Webster-Stratton, C. (1984). A randomized trial of two parent training programs for families with conduct-disordered children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52(4), 666–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Weiner, B., Perry, R. P., & Magnusson, J. (1988). An attributional analysis of reactions to stigmas. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(5), 738–748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Weiss, M. (1997). Explanatory model interview catalogue (EMIC): Framework for comparative study of illness. Transcultural Psychiatry, 34(2), 235–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Westoby, P., & Ingamells, A. (2010). A critically informed perspective of working with resettling refugee groups in Australia. The British Journal of Social Work, 40(6), 1759–1776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Whaley, A. L. (1997). Ethnic and racial differences in perceptions of dangerousness of persons with mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 48(10), 1328–1330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Whitbeck, L. B., McMorris, B. J., Hoyt, D. R., Stubben, J. D., & LaFromboise, T. (2002). Perceived discrimination, traditional practices, and depressive symptoms among American Indians in the upper Midwest. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43(4), 400–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Wilcox, C. E., Washburn, R., & Patel, V. (2007). Seeking help for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in developing countries: A study of parental explanatory models in Goa, India. Social Science and Medicine, 64(8), 1600–1610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Wilson, C. J., Deane, F. P., & Ciarrochi, J. (2005). Measuring help-seeking intentions: Properties of the general help-seeking questionnaire. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 39(1), 15–28.Google Scholar
  375. Wong, J. L. (1994). Lay theories of psychotherapy and perceptions of therapists: A replication and extension of Furnham and Wardley. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50(4), 624–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Wong, E. C., Collins, R. L., Cerully, J. L., Seelam, R., & Roth, E. (2016). Racial and ethnic differences in mental illness stigma and discrimination among californians experiencing mental health challenges. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Wong, C. A., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. (2003). The influence of ethnic discrimination and ethnic identification on African American adolescents’ school and socioemotional adjustment. Journal of Personality, 71(6), 1197–1232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Wong, D. F. K., Tsui, H. K. P., Pearson, V., Chen, E. Y. H., & Chiu, S. N. (2004). Family burdens, Chinese health beliefs, and the mental health of Chinese caregivers in Hong Kong. Transcultural Psychiatry, 41(4), 497–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. Wong, R., Wu, R., Guo, C., Lam, J. K., & Snowden, L. R. (2012). Culturally sensitive depression assessment for Chinese American immigrants: development of a comprehensive measure and a screening scale using an item response approach. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 3(4), 230–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Yang, L. H., Corsini-Munt, S., Phelan, J. C., & Link, B. G. (2009). Factors underlying beliefs of traditional Chinese medicine efficacy for psychiatric and physical disorders among Chinese Americans: Implications for mental health service utilization. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 197(3), 207–210.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Yang, L. H., Phelan, J. C., & Link, B. G. (2008). Stigma and beliefs of efficacy towards traditional Chinese medicine and Western psychiatric treatment among Chinese-Americans. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14(1), 10–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. Yap, M. B. H., & Jorm, A. F. (2012). Young people’s mental health first aid intentions and beliefs prospectively predict their actions: Findings from an Australian National Survey of Youth. Psychiatry Research, 196(2), 315–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. Yap, M. B. H., Mackinnon, A., Reavley, N., & Jorm, A. F. (2014). The measurement properties of stigmatizing attitudes towards mental disorders: Results from two community surveys. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 23(1), 49–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Yasui, M., & Dishion, T. J. (2007). The ethnic context of child and adolescent problem behavior: Implications for child and family interventions. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10(2), 137–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. Yasui, M., & Henry, D. B. (2014). Shared understanding as a gateway for treatment engagement: A preliminary study examining the effectiveness of the culturally-enhanced video feedback engagement intervention. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(7), 658–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Yasui, M., Hipwell, A. E., Stepp, S. D., & Keenan, K. (2015). Psychocultural correlates of mental health service utilization among African American and European American girls. Administration Policy and Mental Health, 42(6), 756–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Yeh, M., & Hough, R. L. (1997). Beliefs about the causes of child problems questionnaire. Dr. Yeh at myeh@casrc.orgGoogle Scholar
  388. Yeh, M., Hough, R. L., McCabe, K., Lau, A., & Garland, A. (2004). Parental beliefs about the causes of child problems: Exploring racial/ethnic patterns. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(5), 605–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. Yeh, C. J., & Kwong, A. (2009). Asian American indigenous healing and coping. In N. Tewari & A. Alvarez (Eds.), Asian American psychology: Current perspectives (pp. 559–574). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  390. Yeh, M., McCabe, K., Hough, R. L., Dupuis, D., & Hazen, A. (2003). Racial/ethnic differences in parental endorsement of barriers to mental health services for youth. Mental Health Services Research, 5, 65–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. Yeh, M., Takeuchi, D. T., & Sue, S. (1994). Asian-American children treated in the mental health system: A comparison of parallel and mainstream outpatient service centers. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23(1), 5–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. Yong, F., & McCallion, P. (2004). Hwabyung as caregiving stress among Korean-American caregivers of a relative with dementia. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 42(2), 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. Young, A. (1976). Internalizing and externalizing medical belief systems: An Ethiopian example. Social Science and Medicine, 10(3), 147–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Young, A. S., & Rabiner, D. (2015). Racial/ethnic differences in parent-reported barriers to accessing children’s health services. Psychological Services, 12(3), 267–273.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. Zung, W. W. K. (1965). A self rating depression scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12(1), 63–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social Service AdministrationUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.School of Social Work and Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging ResearchRutgers, The State University of New JerseyNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations