Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 173–190 | Cite as

Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy for Adolescents Suffering from Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Childhood Sexual or Physical Abuse: A Pilot Study

  • Simone Matulis
  • Patricia A. Resick
  • Rita Rosner
  • Regina Steil


Although childhood sexual abuse and childhood physical abuse (CSA and CPA) have severe psychopathological consequences, there is little evidence supporting psychotherapeutic interventions for adolescents who have experienced CSA or CPA. To provide a treatment tailored to the specific needs of adolescents suffering from abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we modified Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) by adding new treatment modules and changing the therapy setting. To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of Developmentally Adapted CPT (D-CPT), we treated 12 adolescents suffering from PTSD secondary to CSA or CPA. Patients were assessed prior to treatment (t0), post-treatment (t1), and 6 weeks after treatment (t2). Assessments included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the UCLA PTSD Index (UCLA), the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES), and the Borderline Symptom List (BSL-23). MANOVAs revealed that posttraumatic stress measurements and associated symptom measurements significantly differed across time points. When comparing t0 with t2, Cohen’s d was large with respect to the CAPS scores (d = 1.45, p < .001) and the UCLA scores (d = 1.91, p < .001). Cohen’s d had a medium magnitude with respect to the CDI scores (d = .78, p < .001), the A-DES scores (d = 0.64, p < .05), and the BSL-23 scores (d = 0.74, p < .01). D-CPT has the potential to reduce PTSD symptoms and comorbid psychopathology in adolescents with histories of CSA or CPA.


Posttraumatic stress Sexual abuse Physical abuse Adolescents 



We thank Anne-Marie Korst for her conceptual support during the development of D-CPT and her therapeutic work. We also thank Dr. Volkmar Höfling for his collaboration on statistical analyses. Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to all of the participants who gave their time to be part of this study.


  1. Adornetto, C., Suppiger, A., In-Albon, T., Neuschwander, M., & Schneider, S. (2012). Concordances and discrepancies between ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria for anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 6(1), 40. doi: 10.1186/1753-2000-6-40.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahrens, J., & Rexford, L. (2002). Cognitive processing therapy for incarcerated adolescents with PTSD. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 6(1), 201–216. doi: 10.1300/J146v06n01_10.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychological Association. (2001). Understanding child sexual abuse. Education, prevention, and recovery. Accessed March 5, 2013.
  5. American Psychological Association. (2013). Understanding and preventing child abuse and neglect. Accessed March 5, 2013.
  6. Annerback, E. M., Sahlqvist, L., Svedin, C. G., Wingren, G., & Gustafsson, P. A. (2012). Child physical abuse and concurrence of other types of child abuse in Sweden-Associations with health and risk behaviors. Child Abuse and Neglect, 36(7–8), 585–595. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2012.05.006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Armstrong, J. G., Putnam, F. W., Carlson, E. B., Libero, D. Z., & Smith, S. R. (1997). Development and validation of a measure of adolescent dissociation: The Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 185(8), 491–497. doi: 10.1097/00005053-199708000-00003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnes, J. E., Noll, J. G., Putnam, F. W., & Trickett, P. K. (2009). Sexual and physical revictimization among victims of severe childhood sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 33(7), 412–420. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.09.013.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bisson, J. I., Ehlers, A., Matthews, R., Pilling, S., Richards, D., & Turner, S. (2007). Psychological treatments for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 97–104. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.106.021402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Blake, D., Weathers, F., Nagy, L., Kaloupek, D., Klauminzer, G., Charne, Y. D., et al. (2000). Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) instruction manual. Boston: National Center for PTSD.Google Scholar
  11. Bohus, M., Dyer, A., Priebe, K., Krüger, A., Kleindienst, N., Schmahl, C., et al. (2013). Dialectical behaviour therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder after childhood sexual abuse in patients with and without borderline personality disorder: A randomised controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics8, 221–233. doi: 10.1159/000348451.
  12. Bohus, M., Kleindienst, N., Limberger, M. F., Stieglitz, R. D., Domsalla, M., Chapman, A. L., et al. (2009). The short version of the Borderline Symptom List (BSL-23): Development and initial data on psychometric properties. Psychopathology, 42(1), 32–39. doi: 10.1159/000173701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Boos, A., Scheifling-Hirschbil, I., & Rüddel, H. (1999). Therapie-Evaluation einer stationären Gruppe « Traumabewältigung » innerhalb der psychosomatischen Behandlung und Rehabilitation von Patientinnen mit chronischer PTB [Evaluation of an inpatient therapy group focusing on coping with trauma in psychosomatic treatment and rehabilitation of patients with chronic PTSD]. Verhaltenstherapie, 9, 200–210.Google Scholar
  14. Bradley, R., Greene, J., Russ, E., Dutra, L., & Westen, D. (2005). A multidimensional meta-analysis of psychotherapy for PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(2), 214–227. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.2.214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brunner, R. M., Resch, F., Parzer, P., & Koch, E. (2008). Heidelberger Dissoziations-Inventar. HDI. Frankfurt: Pearson Assessment & Information.Google Scholar
  16. Bruss, G. S., Gruenberg, A. M., Goldstein, R. D., & Barber, J. P. (1994). Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale Interview guide: Joint interview and test-retest methods for interrater reliability. Psychiatry Research, 53(2), 191–202. doi: 10.1016/0165-1781(94)90110-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chard, K. M. (2005). An evaluation of cognitive processing therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(5), 965–971. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.5.965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chard, K. M., Ricksecker, E. G., Healy, E. T., Karlin, B. E., & Resick, P. A. (2012). Dissemination and experience with cognitive processing therapy. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 49(5), 667–678. doi: 10.1682/JRRD.2011.10.0198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chard, K. M., Schumm, J. A., McIlvain, S. M., Bailey, G. W., & Parkinson, R. B. (2011). Exploring the efficacy of a residential treatment program incorporating cognitive processing therapy-cognitive for veterans with PTSD and traumatic brain injury. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(3), 347–351. doi: 10.1002/jts.20644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chard, K. M., Schumm, J. A., Owens, G. P., & Cottingham, S. M. (2010). A comparison of OEF and OIF veterans and Vietnam veterans receiving cognitive processing therapy. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(1), 25–32. doi: 10.1002/jts.20500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen, J. A., Deblinger, E., & Mannarino, A. P. (2006). Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  22. Cohen, J. A., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A. P., & Steer, R. A. (2004). A multisite, randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuse-related PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(4), 393–402. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000111364.94169.f9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Iyengar, S. (2011). Community treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder for children exposed to intimate partner violence: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 165(1), 16–21. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., Perel, J. M., & Staron, V. (2007). A pilot randomized controlled trial of combined trauma-focused CBT and sertraline for childhood PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(7), 811–819. doi: 10.1097/chi.0b013e3180547105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cutajar, M. C., Mullen, P. E., Ogloff, J. R., Thomas, S. D., Wells, D. L., & Spataro, J. (2010). Psychopathology in a large cohort of sexually abused children followed up to 43 years. Child Abuse and Neglect, 34(11), 813–822. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2010.04.004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Danielson, C. K., McCart, M. R., Walsh, K., de Arellano, M. A., White, D., & Resnick, H. S. (2012). Reducing substance use risk and mental health problems among sexually assaulted adolescents: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of Family Psychology, 26(4), 628–635. doi: 10.1037/a0028862.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Deacon, B., & Abramowitz, J. (2006). A pilot study of two-day cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(6), 807–817. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.05.008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Deblinger, E., Lippmann, J., & Steer, R. (1996). Sexually abused children suffering posttraumatic stress symptoms: Initial treatment outcome findings. Child Maltreatment, 1(4), 310–321. doi: 10.1177/1077559596001004003.Google Scholar
  29. Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A. P., Cohen, J. A., Runyon, M. K., & Steer, R. A. (2011). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for children: Impact of the trauma narrative and treatment length. Depression and Anxiety, 28(1), 67–75. doi: 10.1002/da.20744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Deblinger, E., McLeer, S. V., & Henry, D. (1990). Cognitive behavioral treatment for sexually abused children suffering post-traumatic stress: Preliminary findings. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29(5), 747–752. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199009000-00012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Deblinger, E., Stauffer, L. B., & Steer, R. A. (2001). Comparative efficacies of supportive and cognitive behavioral group therapies for young children who have been sexually abused and their nonoffending mothers. Child Maltreatment, 6(4), 332–343. doi: 10.1177/1077559501006004006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Ehlers, A., Clark, D. M., Hackmann, A., Grey, N., Liness, S., Wild, J., et al. (2010). Intensive cognitive therapy for PTSD: A feasibility study. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 38(4), 383–398. doi: 10.1017/S1352465810000214.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Elklit, A. (2002). Victimization and PTSD in a Danish national youth probability sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(2), 174–181. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200202000-00011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ertl, V., Pfeiffer, A., Schauer, E., Elbert, T., & Neuner, F. (2011). Community-implemented trauma therapy for former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 306(5), 503–512. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.1060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Ormrod, R., & Hamby, S. L. (2009). Violence, abuse, and crime exposure in a national sample of children and youth. Journal of Pediatrics, 124(5), 1411–1423. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-0467.Google Scholar
  36. First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (1997). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID I). New York: Biometric Research Department.Google Scholar
  37. First, M. B., Spitzer, R., Gibbon, M., Williams, J., & Benjamin, L. (1994). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders (SCID II). New York: Biometric Research Department.Google Scholar
  38. Foa, E. B., Dancu, C. V., Hembree, E. A., Jaycox, L. H., Meadows, E. A., & Street, G. P. (1999). A comparison of exposure therapy, stress inoculation training, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in female assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(2), 194–200. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.67.2.194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Foa, E. B., Hembree, E. A., Cahill, S. P., Rauch, S. A., Riggs, D. S., Feeny, N. C., et al. (2005). Randomized trial of prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder with and without cognitive restructuring: Outcome at academic and community clinics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(5), 953–964. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.5.953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Foa, E. B., Keane, T. M., Friedman, M. J., & Cohen, J. A. (2009). Effective treatments of PTSD. Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (2nd ed.). New York: Guildford.Google Scholar
  41. Foa, E. B., Rothbaum, B. O., Riggs, D. S., & Murdock, T. B. (1991). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: A comparison between cognitive-behavioral procedures and counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59(5), 715–723. doi: 10.1037//0022-006X.59.5.715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Forbes, D., Lloyd, D., Nixon, R. D., Elliott, P., Varker, T., Perry, D., et al. (2012). A multisite randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive processing therapy for military-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26(3), 442–452. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2012.01.006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fydrich, T., Renneberg, B., Schmitz, B., & Wittchen, H.-U. (1997). SKID-II. Strukturiertes Klinisches Interview f¨ur DSM-IV. Achse II: Persönlichkeitsstörungen [Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Axis II: Personality Disorders]. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  44. Galovski, T. E., Blain, L. M., Mott, J. M., Elwood, L., & Houle, T. (2012). Manualized therapy for PTSD: Flexing the structure of cognitive processing therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(6), 968–981. doi: 10.1037/a0030600.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gilbert, R., Widom, C. S., Browne, K., Fergusson, D., Webb, E., & Janson, S. (2009). Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. Lancet, 373(9657), 68–81. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61706-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Habigzang, L. F., Stroeher, F. H., Hatzenberger, R., Cunha, R. C., Ramos Mda, S., & Koller, S. H. (2009). Cognitive behavioral group therapy for sexually abused girls. Revista de Saúde Pública, 43(Suppl 1), 70–78. doi: 10.1590/S0034-89102009000800011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Harned, M. S., Rizvi, S. L., & Linehan, M. M. (2010). Impact of co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder on suicidal women with borderline personality disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(10), 1210–1217. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09081213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Harvey, S. T., & Taylor, J. E. (2010). A meta-analysis of the effects of psychotherapy with sexually abused children and adolescents. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 517–535. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.03.006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hawkins, A. O., Danielson, C. K., de Arellano, M. A., Hanson, R. F., Ruggiero, K. J., Smith, D. W., et al. (2010). Ethnic/racial differences in the prevalence of injurious spanking and other child physical abuse in a National Survey of Adolescents. Child Maltreatment, 15(3), 242–249. doi: 10.1177/1077559510367938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hawton, K., Saunders, K. E., & O’Connor, R. C. (2012). Self-harm and suicide in adolescents. Lancet, 379(9834), 2373–2382. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60322-5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Imel, Z. E., Laska, K., Jakupcak, M., & Simpson, T. L. (2013). Meta-analysis of dropout in treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81(3), 394–404. doi: 10.1037/a0031474.Google Scholar
  52. Kazdin, A. E., Mazurick, J. L., & Bass, D. (1993). Risk for attrition in treatment of antisocial children and families. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22(1), 2–16. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2201_1.Google Scholar
  53. Kazdin, A. E., Mazurick, J. L., & Siegel, T. C. (1994). Treatment outcome among children with externalizing disorder who terminate prematurely versus those who complete psychotherapy. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33(4), 549–557. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199405000-00013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kendall-Tackett, K. A., Williams, L. M., & Finkelhor, D. (1993). Impact of sexual abuse on children: A review and synthesis of recent empirical studies. Psychological Bulletin, 113(1), 164–180. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kilpatrick, D. G., Ruggiero, K. J., Acierno, R., Saunders, B. E., Resnick, H. S., & Best, C. L. (2003). Violence and risk of PTSD, major depression, substance abuse/dependence, and comorbidity: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(4), 692–700. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.71.4.692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. King, N. J., Tonge, B. J., Mullen, P., Myerson, N., Heyne, D., Rollings, S., et al. (2000). Treating sexually abused children with posttraumatic stress symptoms: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(11), 1347–1355. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200011000-00008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kirsch, V., Fegert, J. M., Seitz, D. C. M., & Goldbeck, L. (2011). Traumafokussierte kognitive Verhaltenstherapie (Tf-KVT) bei Kindern und Jugendlichen nach Missbrauch und Misshandlung [Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Tf-CBT) for children and adolescents after abuse and maltreatment: Results of a pilot study]. Kindheit & Entwicklung, 20(2), 95–102.Google Scholar
  58. Kokkevi, A., Rotsika, V., Arapaki, A., & Richardson, C. (2012). Adolescents’ self-reported suicide attempts, self-harm thoughts and their correlates across 17 European countries. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 53(4), 381–389. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02457.x.Google Scholar
  59. Kovacs, M. (1985). The Children’s Depression, Inventory (CDI). Psychopharmacological Bulletin, 21(4), 995–998.Google Scholar
  60. Krakow, B., Sandoval, D., Schrader, R., Keuhne, B., McBride, L., Yau, C. L., et al. (2001). Treatment of chronic nightmares in adjudicated adolescent girls in a residential facility. Journal of Adolescent Health, 29(2), 94–100. doi: 10.1016/S1054-139X(00)00195-6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kubany, E. S., & Ralston, T. C. (2008). Treating PTSD in battered women. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications.Google Scholar
  62. Lanktree, C. B., & Briere, J. (1995). Outcome of therapy for sexually abused children: A repeated measures study. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19(9), 1145–1155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Leenarts, L. E., Diehle, J., Doreleijers, T. A., Jansma, E. P., & Lindauer, R. J. (2012). Evidence-based treatments for children with trauma-related psychopathology as a result of childhood maltreatment: A systematic review. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,. doi: 10.1007/s00787-012-0367-5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  65. Lipschitz, D. S., Rasmusson, A. M., Anyan, W., Cromwell, P., & Southwick, S. M. (2000). Clinical and functional correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder in urban adolescent girls at a primary care clinic. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(9), 1104–1111. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200009000-00009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Little, R. J. A., & Rubin, D. B. (1989). The analysis of social science data with missing values. Sociological Methods & Research, 18(2–3), 292–326. doi: 10.1177/0049124189018002004.Google Scholar
  67. Lobbestael, J., Arntz, A., Harkema-Schouten, P., & Bernstein, D. (2009). Development and psychometric evaluation of a new assessment method for childhood maltreatment experiences: The interview for traumatic events in childhood (ITEC). Child Abuse and Neglect, 33(8), 505–517. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.03.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lobbestael, J., Leurgans, M., & Arntz, A. (2011). Inter-rater reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID I) and Axis II Disorders (SCID II). Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 18(1), 75–79. doi: 10.1002/cpp.693.Google Scholar
  69. Madge, N., Hewitt, A., Hawton, K., de Wilde, E. J., Corcoran, P., Fekete, S., et al. (2008). Deliberate self-harm within an international community sample of young people: Comparative findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) Study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 49(6), 667–677. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01879.x.Google Scholar
  70. Maniglio, R. (2009). The impact of child sexual abuse on health: A systematic review of reviews. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(7), 647–657. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.08.003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. McDonagh, A., Friedman, M., McHugo, G., Ford, J., Sengupta, A., Mueser, K., et al. (2005). Randomized trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(3), 515–524. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. McLeer, S. V., Deblinger, E., Henry, D., & Orvaschel, H. (1992). Sexually abused children at high risk for post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31(5), 875–879. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199209000-00015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. McLeer, S. V., Dixon, J. F., Henry, D., Ruggiero, K., Escovitz, K., Niedda, T., et al. (1998). Psychopathology in non-clinically referred sexually abused children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(12), 1326–1333. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199812000-00017.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Monson, C. M., Schnurr, P. P., Resick, P. A., Friedman, M. J., Young-Xu, Y., & Stevens, S. P. (2006). Cognitive processing therapy for veterans with military-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(5), 898–907. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.5.898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Nader, K., Blake, D. D., & Kriegler, J. A. (1994). Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Children (CAPS-CA). Current and lifetime diagnosis version, and instruction manual. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA: Neuropsychiatric Institute and National Center for PTSD.Google Scholar
  76. National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. (2005). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): The management of PTSD in adults and children in primary and secondary care. London: Gaskell and the British Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  77. Nolan, M., Carr, A., Fitzpatrick, C., O’Flaherty, A., Keary, K., Turner, R., et al. (2002). A comparison of two programmes for victims of child sexual abuse: A treatment outcome study. Child Abuse Review, 11(2), 103–123. doi: 10.1002/car.727.Google Scholar
  78. Nooner, K. B., Linares, L. O., Batinjane, J., Kramer, R. A., Silva, R., & Cloitre, M. (2012). Factors related to posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescence. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 13(3), 153–166. doi: 10.1177/1524838012447698.Google Scholar
  79. Oldfield, V. B., Salkovskis, P. M., & Taylor, T. (2011). Time-intensive cognitive behaviour therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A case series and matched comparison group. The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50(1), 7–18. doi: 10.1348/014466510X490073.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Pellerin, K. A., Costa, N. M., Weems, C. F., & Dalton, R. F. (2010). An examination of treatment completers and non-completers at a child and adolescent community mental health clinic. Community Mental Health Journal, 46(3), 273–281. doi: 10.1007/s10597-009-9285-5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Pereda, N., Guilera, G., Forns, M., & Gomez-Benito, J. (2009). The prevalence of child sexual abuse in community and student samples: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(4), 328–338. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.02.007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Resick, P. A., Bovin, M. J., Calloway, A. L., Dick, A. M., King, M. W., Mitchell, K. S., et al. (2012a). A critical evaluation of the complex PTSD literature: Implications for DSM-5. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(3), 241–251. doi: 10.1002/jts.21699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Resick, P. A., Galovski, T. E., O’Brien Uhlmansiek, M., Scher, C. D., Clum, G. A., & Young-Xu, Y. (2008a). A randomized clinical trial to dismantle components of cognitive processing therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in female victims of interpersonal violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(2), 243–258. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.76.2.243.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Resick, P. A., Monson, C. M., & Chard, K. M. (2008b). Cognitive processing therapy: Veteran/military version. Washington, DC: Department of Veterans’ Affairs.Google Scholar
  85. Resick, P. A., Nishith, P., & Griffin, M. G. (2003). How well does cognitive-behavioral therapy treat symptoms of complex PTSD? An examination of child sexual abuse survivors within a clinical trial. CNS Spectrums, 8(5), 340–355.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Resick, P. A., Nishith, P., Weaver, T. L., Astin, M. C., & Feuer, C. A. (2002). A comparison of cognitive-processing therapy with prolonged exposure and a waiting condition for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in female rape victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(4), 867–879. doi: 10.1037//0022-006X.70.4.867.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Resick, P. A., & Schnicke, M. K. (1992). Cognitive processing therapy for sexual assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(5), 748–756. doi: 10.1037//0022-006X.60.5.748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Resick, P. A., & Schnicke, M. K. (1993). Cognitive processing therapy for rape victims: A treatment manual. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  89. Resick, P. A., Williams, L. F., Suvak, M. K., Monson, C. M., & Gradus, J. L. (2012b). Long-term outcomes of cognitive-behavioral treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder among female rape survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(2), 201–210. doi: 10.1037/a0026602.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rizvi, S. L., Vogt, D. S., & Resick, P. A. (2009). Cognitive and affective predictors of treatment outcome in cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(9), 737–743. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2009.06.003.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Ruf, M., Schauer, M., & Elbert, T. (2010). UPID—UCLA PTSD Index for DSM IV. In C. Barkmann, M. Schulte-Markwort, & E. Brähler (Eds.), Fragebögen zur Diagnostik psychischer Störungen des Kindes- und Jugendalters. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  92. Schneider, S., Unnewehr, S., & Margraf, J. (Eds.). (2009). Diagnostisches Interview bei psychischen Störungen im Kindes- und Jugendalter (Kinder-DIPS) [Diagnostic interview for mental disorders in childhood and adolescence] (2nd ed.). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  93. Schnyder, U., & Moergeli, H. (2002). German version of Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15(6), 487–492. doi: 10.1023/A:1020922023090.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Schulz, P. M., Resick, P. A., Huber, L. C., & Griffin, M. G. (2006). The effectiveness of cognitive processing therapy for PTSD with refugees in a community setting. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 13(4), 322–331. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2006.04.011.Google Scholar
  95. Silverman, A. B., Reinherz, H. Z., & Giaconia, R. M. (1996). The long-term sequelae of child and adolescent abuse: A longitudinal community study. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20(8), 709–723. doi: 10.1016/0145-2134(96)00059-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Sinclair, J. J., Larzelere, R. E., Paine, M., Jones, P., Graham, K., & Jones, M. (1995). Outcome of group treatment for sexually abused adolescent females living in a group home setting: Preliminary findings. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10(4), 533–542. doi: 10.1177/088626095010004011.Google Scholar
  97. Smith, P., Yule, W., Perrin, S., Tranah, T., Dalgleish, T., & Clark, D. M. (2007). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD in children and adolescents: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(8), 1051–1061. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e318067e288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Stauffer, L. B., & Deblinger, E. (1996). Cognitive behavioral groups for nonoffending mothers and their young sexually abused children: A preliminary treatment outcome study. Child Maltreatment, 1(1), 65–76. doi: 10.1177/1077559596001001007.Google Scholar
  99. Steil, R., Dyer, A., Priebe, K., Kleindienst, N., & Bohus, M. (2011). Dialectical behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse: A pilot study of an intensive residential treatment program. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(1), 102–106. doi: 10.1002/jts.20617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Steinberg, A. M., Brymer, M. J., Decker, K. B., & Pynoos, R. S. (2004). The University of California at Los Angeles Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index. Current Psychiatry Reports, 6(2), 96–100. doi: 10.1007/s11920-004-0048-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Steinberg, A. M., Brymer, M. J., Kim, S., Briggs, E. C., Ippen, C. G., Ostrowski, S. A., et al. (2013). Psychometric properties of the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index: Part I. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26(1), 1–9. doi: 10.1002/jts.21780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Stiensmeier-Pelster, J., Schürmann, M., & Duda, K. (2000). DIKJ—Depressionsinventar für Kinder und Jugendliche. Handanweisung. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  103. Storch, E. A., Geffken, G. R., Merlo, L. J., Mann, G., Duke, D., Munson, M., et al. (2007). Family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: Comparison of intensive and weekly approaches. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(4), 469–478. doi: 10.1097/chi.0b013e31803062e7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Swift, J. K., & Greenberg, R. P. (2012). Premature discontinuation in adult psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(4), 547–559. doi: 10.1037/a0028226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Taylor, J. E., & Harvey, S. T. (2009). Effects of psychotherapy with people who have been sexually assaulted: A meta-analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14(5), 273–285. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2009.03.006.Google Scholar
  106. Tourigny, M., Hebert, M., Daigneault, I., & Simoneau, A. C. (2005). Efficacy of a group therapy for sexually abused adolescent girls. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 14(4), 71–93. doi: 10.1300/J070v14n04_04.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Trask, E. V., Walsh, K., & Dilillo, D. (2011). Treatment effects for common outcomes of child sexual abuse: A current meta-analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 16(1), 6–19. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2010.10.001.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Weathers, F. W., Keane, T. M., & Davidson, J. R. (2001). Clinician-administered PTSD scale: A review of the first ten years of research. Depression and Anxiety, 13(3), 132–156. doi: 10.1002/da.1029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Weiß, R. H. (2006). CFT 20-R. Grundintelligenztest Skala 2-Revision. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  110. Wittchen, H. U., Wunderlich, U., Gruschwitz, S., & Zaudig, M. (1996). Strukturiertes Klinisches Interview f¨ur DSM-IV (SKID) [Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SKID)]. Göttingen, Germany: Beltz-Test.Google Scholar
  111. Zanarini, M. C., Skodol, A. E., Bender, D., Dolan, R., Sanislow, C., Schaefer, E., et al. (2000). The Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study: Reliability of axis I and II diagnoses. Journal of Personality Disorders, 14(4), 291–299. Google Scholar
  112. Zlotnick, C., Zakriski, A. L., Shea, M. T., Costello, E., Begin, A., Pearlstein, T., et al. (1996). The long-term sequelae of sexual abuse: Support for a complex posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9(2), 195–205. doi: 10.1002/jts.2490090204.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simone Matulis
    • 1
  • Patricia A. Resick
    • 2
  • Rita Rosner
    • 3
  • Regina Steil
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of PsychologyGoethe University FrankfurtFrankfurt am MainGermany
  2. 2.National Center for PTSDVA Boston Healthcare System and Boston UniversityBostonUSA
  3. 3.Clinical and Biological PsychologyCatholic University of Eichstätt-IngolstadtEichstätt, IngolstadtGermany

Personalised recommendations