Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 129–143 | Cite as

The Development of Anxiety Disorders: Considering the Contributions of Attachment and Emotion Regulation

  • B. H. Esbjørn
  • P. K. Bender
  • M. L. Reinholdt-Dunne
  • L. A. Munck
  • T. H. Ollendick


Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. Nonetheless, theoretical knowledge of the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety disorders is still in its infancy. Recently, research has begun to investigate the influence of emotion regulation on anxiety disorders. Although a relation between anxiety disorders and emotion regulation difficulties has been demonstrated, little attention has been given to the question of why anxious individuals have difficulties regulating their emotions. The present review examines the evidence of the link between emotion regulation and anxiety. It also explores the unique contributions of attachment style and dysfunctional emotion regulation to the development of anxiety disorders.


Emotion regulation Attachment Child Anxiety 


  1. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  2. Amstadter, A. (2008). Emotion regulation and anxiety disorders. Anxiety Disorders, 22, 211–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angold, A., Costello, E. J., & Erkanli, A. (1999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 57–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armsden, G., & Greenberg, M. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bar-Haim, Y., Dan, O., Eshel, Y., & Sagi-Schwartz, A. (2007a). Predicting children’s anxiety from early attachment relationships. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 1061–1068.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bar-Haim, Y., Lamy, D., Pergamin, L., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M., & van IJzendoorn, M. (2007b). Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: A meta-analytic study. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 1–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beebe, B., Knoblauch, S., Rustin, J., Sorter, D., Jacobs, T. J., & Pally, R. (2005). Forms of intersubjectivity in infant research and adult treatment. New York: Other Press.Google Scholar
  8. Belsky, J. (2002). Developmental origins of attachment styles. Attachment and Human Development, 4, 166–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bögels, S. M., & Brechman-Toussaint, M. L. (2006). Family issues in child anxiety: Attachment, family functioning, parental rearing and beliefs. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 834–856.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bohlin, G., Hagekull, B., & Rydell, A.-M. (2000). Attachement and social functioning: A longitudinal study from infancy to middle childhood. Social Development, 9, 24–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bosquet, M., & Egeland, B. (2006). The development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms from infancy through adolescence in a longitudinal sample. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 517–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss, Vol. 2: Separation. Sydney: Random House.Google Scholar
  13. Brazelton, T. B. (1973). Neonatal behavioral assessment scale (Clinics in Developmental Medicine, No. 50). Philadelphia: Lippencott.Google Scholar
  14. Brown, A. M., & Whiteside, S. P. (2008). Relations among perceived parental rearing behaviors, attachment style, and worry in anxious children. Anxiety Disorders, 22, 263–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brumariu, L. E., & Kerns, K. A. (2008). Mother–child attachment and social anxiety symptoms in middle childhood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 393–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brumariu, L. E., & Kerns, K. A. (2010). Parent-child attachment and internalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence: A review of empirical findings and future directions. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 177–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Calkins, S. D., & Hill, A. (2007). Caregiver influences on emerging emotion regulations; Biological and environmental transactions in early development. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 229–248). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  18. Campbell-Sills, L., Barlow, D. H., Brown, T. A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2006). Acceptability and suppression of negative emotion in anxiety and mood disorders. Emotion, 6, 587–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Campos, J. J., Frankel, C. B., & Camras, L. (2004). On the nature of emotion regulation. Child Development, 75, 377–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carthy, T., Hoersh, N., Apter, A., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Patterns of emotional reactivity and regulation in children with anxiety disorders. Journal of Psychopathology and behavioural assessment, 32, 23–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cartwright-Hatton, S., McNicol, K., & Doubleday, E. (2006). Anxiety in a neglected population: Prevalence of anxiety disorders in pre-adolescent children. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 817–833.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cassidy, J. (1994). Emotion regulation: Influences of attachment relationships. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 228–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cassidy, J., Lichenstein-Phelps, N., Sibrave, N. J., Thomas, C. L., Jr., & Borkovec, T. D. (2009). Generalized anxiety disorder: Connections with self-reported attachment. Behavior Therapy, 40, 23–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chorpita, B. F., Yim, L., Moffitt, C., Umemoto, L. A., & Francis, S. E. (2000). Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: A revised child anxiety and depression scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 835–855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulleting, 112, 155–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cole, P. M., Martin, S. E., & Dennis, T. A. (2004). Emotion regulation as a scientific construct: Methodological challenges and directions for child development research. Child Development, 75, 317–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Colonnesi, C., Draijer, E. M., Stams, G. J. J. M., Van der Bruggen, C., Bögels, S., & Noom, M. J. (2011). The relation between insecure attachment and child anxiety: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40, 630–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Costa, N. M., & Weems, C. F. (2005). Maternal and child anxiety: Do attachment beliefs or children’s perceptions of maternal control mediate their association? Social Development, 14, 574–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dallaire, D. H., & Weinraub, M. (2005). Predicting children’s separation anxiety at age 6: The contributions of infant-mother attachment security, maternal sensitivity, and maternal separation anxiety. Attachment and Human Development, 7, 393–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dallaire, D. H., & Weinraub, M. (2007). Infant–mother attachment security and children’s anxiety and aggression at first grade. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 477–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. De Wolff, M. S., & van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (1997). Sensitivity and attachment: A meta-analysis on parental antecedents of infant attachment. Child Development, 68, 571–591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. DeOliveira, C. A., Bailey, H. N., Moran, G., & Pederson, D. R. (2004). Emotion socialization as a framework for understanding the development of disorganized attachment. Social Development, 13, 437–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dewitte, M., Koster, E. H. W., De Houwer, J., & Buysse, A. (2007). Attentive processing of threat and adult attachment: A dot-probe study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1307–1317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Diener, M. L., Mangelsdorf, S. C., McHale, J. L., & Frosch, C. A. (2002). Infants’ behavioral strategies for emotion regulation with fathers and mothers: Associations with emotional expressions and attachment quality. Infancy, 3, 153–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Eisenberg, N., & Spinrad, T. L. (2004). Emotion-related regulation: Sharpening the definition. Child Development, 75, 334–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Emslie, G. J. (2008). Pediatric anxiety—underrecognized and undertreated. New England Journal of Medicine, 359, 2835–2836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Eng, W., Heimberg, R. G., Hart, T. A., Schneier, F. R., & Liebowitz, M. R. (2001). Attachment in individuals with social anxiety disorder: The relationship among adult attachment styles, social anxiety and depression. Emotion, 1, 365–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Esbjørn, B. H., Hoeyer, M., Dyrborg, J., Leth, I., & Kendall, P. (2010). Prevalence and co-morbidity among anxiety disorders in a national cohort of psychiatrically referred children and adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 866–872.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fonagy, P., Gergely, G., Jurist, E., & Target, M. (2002). Affect Regulation, mentalization, and the development of the self. New York, NY: Other Press.Google Scholar
  40. Fonagy, P., Steele, M., Steele, H., Moran, G., & Higgitt, A. (1991). The capacity for understanding mental states: The reflective self in parent and child and its significance for security of attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 12(3), 201–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fonagy, P., & Target, M. (2002). Early intervention and the development of self-regulation. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 22, 307–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fonagy, P., Target, M., Steele, H., & Steele, M. (1998). Reflective functioning manual. Version 5: for application to adult attachment interviews. Unpublished manual, University College, London.Google Scholar
  43. Gentzler, A. L., Kerns, K. A., & Keener, E. (2010). Emotional reactions and regulatory responses to negative and positive events: Associations with attachment and gender. Motivation and emotion, 34, 78–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ginsburg, G. S., Siqueland, L., Masia-Warner, C., & Hedtke, K. A. (2004). Anxiety disorders in children: Family matters. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 11, 28–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  46. Hadwin, J. A., Garner, M., & Perez-Olivas, G. (2006). The development of information processing biases in childhood anxiety: A review and exploration of its origins in parenting. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 876–894.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hannesdottir, D. K., Doxie, J., Bell, M. A., Ollendick, T. H., & Wolfe, C. D. (2010). A longitudinal study of emotion regulation and anxiety in middle childhood: Associations with frontal EEG asymmetry in early childhood. Developmental Psychobiology, 52, 197–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hannesdottir, D. K., & Ollendick, T. H. (2007). The role of emotion regulation in the treatment of child anxiety disorders. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10, 275–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hesse, E., & Main, M. (2000). Disorganized infant, child, and adult attachment: Collapse in behavioral and attentional strategies. Journal of the American Psychoanalytical Association, 48, 1097–1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kagan, J. (1997). Temperament and the reactions to unfamiliarity. Child Development, 68, 139–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kashdan, T. B., Zvolensky, M. J., & McLeish, A. C. (2008). Anxiety sensitivity and affect regulatory strategies: Individual and interactive risk factors for anxiety-related symptoms. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 429–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kirsh, S. J., & Cassidy, J. (1997). Preschoolers’ attention to and memory for attachment-related information. Child Development, 68, 1143–1153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kochanska, G. (2001). Emotional development in children with different attachment histories: The first three years. Child Development, 72, 474–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Krohne, H. W., & Hock, M. (2011). Anxiety, coping strategies, and the processing of threatening information: investigations with cognitive-experimental paradigms. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 916–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Laible, D. J., Carlo, G., & Raffaelli, M. (2000). The differential relations of parents and peer attachment to adolescent adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lease, C. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (1993). Development and psychopathology. In A. S. Bellack & M. Hersen (Eds.), Psychopathology in adulthood: An advanced text (pp. 89–103). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  58. Lee, A., & Hankin, B. L. (2009). Insecure attachment, dysfunctional attitudes, and low self-esteem predicting prospective symptoms of depression and anxiety during adolescence. Journal of clinical child & Adolescent Psychology, 38, 219–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Manassis, K. (2001). Child-parent relations: Attachment and anxiety disorders. In W. K. Silverman & P. D. Treffers (Eds.), Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: Research, assessment and intervention (pp. 255–272). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Manassis, K., & Bradley, S. J. (1994). The development of childhood anxiety disorders: Toward an integrated model. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 345–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Manicavasagar, V., Silove, D., Marnane, C., & Wagner, R. (2009). Adult attachment styles in panic disorder with and without comorbid adult separation anxiety disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 43, 167–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McLeod, B. D., Wood, J. J., & Avny, S. B. (2011). Parenting and child anxiety disorders. In D. McKay & Storch, E. A. (Eds.), Handbook of child and adolescent anxiety disorders. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7784-7_15.
  63. Mikulincer, M., Shaver, P. R., & Pereg, D. (2003). Attachment theory and affect regulation: The dynamics, development, and cognitive consequences of attachment-related strategies. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 77–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Muris, P. (2007). Normal and abnormal fear and anxiety in children. Burlington: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  65. Muris, P., Mayer, B., & Meesters, C. (2000). Self-reported attachment style, anxiety, and depression in children. Social Behavior and Personality, 28, 157–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Muris, P., & Meesters, C. (2002). Attachment, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety disorders symptoms in normal adolescents. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24, 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Muris, P., Meesters, C., & Gobel, M. (2001). Reliability, validity, and normative data of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in 8–12 year-old children. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychology, 32, 63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Murray, L., Creswell, C., & Cooper, P. (2009). The development of anxiety disorders in childhood: An integrative review. Psychological Medicine, 39, 1413–1423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ollendick, T. H. (2009). Social anxiety disorder in youth: An ecological-developmental analysis. In J. A. Mancini & K. A. Roberto (Eds.), Pathways of human development (pp. 95–112). New York: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  70. Ollendick, T. H., & Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R. (2002). The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 44–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Papini, D. R., & Roggman, L. A. (1992). Adolescent perceived attachment to parents in relation to competence, depression, and anxiety: A longitudinal study. Journal of Early Adolescence, 12, 420–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Papini, D. R., Roggman, L. A., & Anderson, J. (1991). Early-adolescent perceptions of attachment to mother and father: A test of the emotional-distancing and buffering hypothesis. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11, 258–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., Mogg, K, Esjørn, B. H., & Bradley, B. P. (2011). Effects of age and anxiety on processing threat cues in healthy children. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology. In press.Google Scholar
  74. Salters-Pedneault, K., Roemer, L., Tull, M. T., Rucker, L., & Mennin, D. S. (2006). Evidence of broad deficits in emotion regulation associated with chronic worry and generalized anxiety disorder. Cognitive Therapy Research, 30, 469–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schore, J. R., & Schore, A. N. (2008). Modern attachment theory: The central role of affect regulation in development and treatment. Clinical Social Work Journal, 36, 9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schreier, A., Wittchen, H.-U., Höfler, M., & Lieb, R. (2008). Anxiety disorders in mothers and their children: Prospective longitudinal community study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 192, 308–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Shamir-Essakow, G., Ungerer, J. A., & Rapee, R. M. (2005). Attachment, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety in preschool children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 131–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Slade, A., Grienenberger, J., Bernbach, E., Levy, D., & Locker, A. (2005). Maternal reflective functioning, attachment, and the transmission gap: A preliminary study. Attachment & Human Development, 7(3), 283–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sroufe, L. A. (2005). Attachment and development: A prospective, longitudinal study from birth to adulthood. Attachment & Human Development, 7, 349–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Steele, H., & Steele, M. (2008). On the origins of reflective functioning. In F. N. Busch (Ed.), Mentalization. Theoretical considerations, research findings, and clinical implications. Psychoanalytic inquiry book series (Vol. 29). London: The analytic Press.Google Scholar
  81. Stein, M. B., & Stein, D. J. (2008). Social anxiety disorder. Lancet, 371, 1115–1125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Suveg, C., Sood, E., Comer, J. S., & Kendall, P. C. (2009). Changes in emotion regulation following cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxious youth. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38, 390–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Suveg, C., Sood, E., Hudson, J. L., & Kendall, P. C. (2008). ”I’d rather not talk about it”. Emotion parenting in families of children with an anxiety disorder. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 875–884.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Suveg, C., Southam-Gerow, M. A., Goodman, K. L., & Kendall, P. C. (2007). The role of emotion theory and research in child therapy development. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 14, 358–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Suveg, C., & Zeman, J. (2004). Emotion regulation in children with anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 750–759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Taghavi, M. R., Dalgleish, T., Moradi, A. R., Neshat-Doost, H. T., & Yule, W. (2003). Selective processing of negative emotional information in children and adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 221–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Taghavi, M. R., Neshat-Doost, H. T., Moradi, A. R., Yule, W., & Dalgleish, T. (1999). Biases in visual attention in children and adolescents with clinical anxiety and mixed anxiety-depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 215–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 25–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Thompson, R. A. (2001). Childhood anxiety disorders from the perspective of emotion regulation and attachment. In M. W. Vasey & M. R. Dadds (Eds.), The developmental psychopathology of anxiety (pp. 160–183). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Tronick, E. Z. (1989). Emotions and emotional communication in infants. American Psychologist, 44, 112–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tull, M. T. (2006). Extending an anxiety sensitivity model of uncued panic attack frequency and symptom severity: The role of emotion dysregulation. Cognitive Therapy Research, 30, 177–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Van Brakell, A. M. L., Muris, P., Bögels, S. M., & Thomassen, C. (2006). A multifactorial model for the etiology of anxiety in non-clinical adolescents: Main and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition, attachment and parental rearing. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 569–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Vasey, M. W., Daleiden, E. L., Williams, L. L., & Brown, L. M. (1995). Biased attention in childhood anxiety disorders: A preliminary study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 267–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Vasey, M. W., & Ollendick, T. H. (2000). Anxiety. In M. Lewis & A. Sameroff (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 511–529). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Warren, S. L., Huston, L., Egeland, B., & Sroufe, L. A. (1997). Child and adolescent anxiety disorders and early attachment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 637–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Weems, C. F., & Silverman, W. K. (2006). An integrative model of control: Implications for understanding emotion regulation and dysregulation in childhood anxiety. Journal of Affective Disorders, 91, 113–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Weems, C. F., & Silverman, W. K. (2008). Anxiety disorders. In T. P. Beauchaine & S. P. Hinshaw (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (pp. 447–476). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.Google Scholar
  98. Weems, C. F., Zakem, A. H., Costa, N. M., Cannon, M. F., & Watts, S. E. (2005). Physiological response and childhood anxiety: Association with symptoms of anxiety disorders and cognitive bias. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 712–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Weinfeld, N. S., Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., & Carlson, E. (2008). Individual differences in infant caregiver attachment—conceptual and empirical aspects of security. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment—theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 78–101). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. H. Esbjørn
    • 1
  • P. K. Bender
    • 1
  • M. L. Reinholdt-Dunne
    • 1
  • L. A. Munck
    • 1
  • T. H. Ollendick
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Psychology, Child Study CenterVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA

Personalised recommendations