Advertisement

Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 199–212 | Cite as

Genetic Influences on Anxiety in Children: What we’ve Learned and Where we’re Heading

  • Alice M. GregoryEmail author
  • Thalia C. Eley
Article

Abstract

Anxiety is a common problem, typically beginning early in life. This article explores reasons for individual differences in levels of anxiety among children, by reviewing the genetic literature. The plethora of research to date has demonstrated clearly that both genes and environmental influences play important roles in explaining differences in levels of anxiety of various types among children. This has encouraged researchers to search for specific genes and environmental influences upon anxiety. Despite important progress in identifying links between anxiety and specific genes—including associations between serotonin and dopamine genes and different symptoms of anxiety—overall, progress has been slow because multiple genes of small effect size are likely to influence anxiety. This article explains how the hunt for genes involved in anxiety is likely to benefit from genetically sensitive research, which examines the co-occurrence of symptoms; includes measures of the environment; and examines endophenotypes and risk pathways.

Keywords

anxiety children environment genes twins 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thalia C. Eley is funded by a Medical Research Council Career Development Award. The authors thank Megan Crawford for her assistance in preparing this article.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the child behaviour checklist and 1991 profile. Vermont, Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of PsychiatryGoogle Scholar
  2. Adegbite, A. L., Castille, S., Ward, S., & Bajoria, R. (2004). Neuromorbidity in preterm twins in relation to chorionicity and discordant birth weight. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 190, 156–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric AssociationGoogle Scholar
  4. Angold, A., Costello, E., & Erkanli, A. (1999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 40, 57–87Google Scholar
  5. Arbelle, S., Benjamin, J., Golin, M., Kremer, I., Belmaker, R. H., & Ebstein, R. P. (2003). Relation of shyness in grade school children to the genotype for the long form of the serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 671–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bakshi, V. P., & Kalin, N. H. (2000). Corticotropin-releasing hormone and animal models of anxiety: Gene-environment interactions. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 1175–1198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ball, D. M., Hill, L., Freeman, B., Eley, T. C., Strelau, J., Riemann, R. et al. (1997). The serotonin transporter gene and peer-rated neuroticism. NeuroReport, 8, 1301–1304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Battaglia, M., Ogliari, A., Zanoni, A., Citterio, A., Pozzoli, U., Giorda, R. et al. (2005). Influence of the serotonin transporter promoter gene and shyness on children’s cerebral responses to facial expressions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 85–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Benjamin, J., Li, L., Patterson, C., Greenburg, B. D., Murphy, D. L., & Hamer, D. H. (1996). Population and familial association between the D4 dopamine receptor gene and measures of novelty seeking. Nature Genetics, 12, 81–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bertolino, A., Arciero, G., Rubino, V., Latorre, V., De Candia, M., Mazzola, V. et al. (2005). Variation of human amygdala response during threatening stimuli as a function of 5′ HTTLPR genotype and personality style. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1517–1525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Biederman, J., Rosenbaum, J. F., Bolduc, E. A., Faraone, S. V., & Hirshfeld, D. R. (1991). A high risk study of young children of parents with panic disorder and agoraphobia with and without comorbid major depression. Psychiatry Research, 37, 333–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bolton, D., Eley, T. C., O’Connor, T. G., Perrin, S., Rabe-Hesketh, S., Rijsdijk, F. et al. (2006). Prevalence and genetic and environmental influences on anxiety disorders in 6-year-old twins. Psychological Medicine, 36, 335–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brady, E. U., & Kendall, P. C. (1992). Comorbidity of anxiety in children and adolescents. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 244–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Calamari, J. E., Hale, L. R., Heffelfinger, S. K., Janeck, A. S., Lau, J. J., Weerts, M. A. et al. (2001). Relations between anxiety sensitivity and panic symptoms in nonreferred children and adolescents. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 32, 117–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Capron, C., Vetta, A. R., Duyme, M., & Vetta, A. (1999). Misconceptions of biometrical IQists. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive-Current Psychology of Cognition, 18, 115–160Google Scholar
  16. Cartwright-Hatton, S., McNicol, K., & Doubleday, E. (2006). Anxiety in a neglected population: Prevalence of anxiety disorders in pre-adolescent children. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 817–833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W. et al. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851–854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2006). Opinion – gene-environment interactions in psychiatry: Joining forces with neuroscience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7, 583–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Cannon, M., McClay, J., Murray, R., Harrington, H. et al. (2005). Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: Longitudinal evidence of a gene X environment interaction. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1117–1127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Craig, I. W., Harrington, H. et al. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301, 386–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen, Z. Y., Jing, D. Q., Bath, K. G., Ieraci, A., Khan, T., Siao, C. J. et al. (2006). Genetic variant BDNF (Val66Met) polymorphism alters anxiety-related behavior. Science, 314, 140–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cronk, N. J., Slutske, W. S., Madden, P. A. F., Bucholz, K. K., & Heath, A. C. (2004). Risk for separation anxiety disorder among girls: Paternal absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and genetic vulnerability. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 237–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Eaves, L., Silberg, J., & Erkanli, A. (2003). Resolving multiple epigenetic pathways to adolescent depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 1006–1014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Eaves, L. J., Silberg, J. L., Meyer, J. M., Maes, H. H., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A. et al. (1997). Genetics and developmental psychopathology: 2. The main effects of genes and environment on behavioral problems in the Virginia Twin study of adolescent behavioral development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 965–980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ebstein, R. P., Novick, O., Umansky, R., Priel, B., Osher, Y., Blaine, D. et al. (1996). Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait novelty-seeking. Nature Genetics, 12, 78–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Edelbrock, C., Rende, R. D., Plomin, R., & Thompson, L. A. (1995). A twin study of competence and problem behavior in childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 775–785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ehringer, M. A., Rhee, S. H., Young, S., Corley, R., & Hewitt, J. K. (2006). Genetic and environmental contributions to common psychopathologies of childhood and adolescence: A study of twins and their siblings. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 1–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Eley, T. C. (1999). Behavioral genetics as a tool for developmental psychology: Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2, 21–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Eley, T. C., Bolton, D., O’Connor, T. G., Perrin, S., Smith, P., & Plomin, R. (2003). A twin study of anxiety-related behaviours in pre-school children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 945–960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Eley, T. C., Gregory, A. M., Clark, D. M., & Ehlers, A. (2007). Feeling anxious: A twin study of panic/somatic symptoms, anxiety sensitivity and heart-beat perception in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (submitted)Google Scholar
  31. Eley, T. C., & Stevenson, J. (1999). Exploring the covariation between anxiety and depression symptoms: A genetic analysis of the effects of age and sex. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 1273–1284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Eley, T. C., & Stevenson, J. (1999). Using genetic analyses to clarify the distinction between depressive and anxious symptoms in children and adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 105–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Feigon, S. A., Waldman, I. D., Levy, F., & Hay, A. D. (2001). Genetic and environmental influences on separation anxiety disorder symptoms and their moderation by age and sex. Behavior Genetics, 31, 403–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Finlay-Jones, R., & Brown, G. W. (1981). Types of stressful life events and the onset of anxiety and depressive disorders. Psychological Medicine, 11, 803–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fox, N. A., Nichols, K. E., Henderson, H. A., Rubin, K., Schmidt, L., Hamer, D. et al. (2005). Evidence for a gene-environment interaction in predicting behavioral inhibition in middle childhood. Psychological Science, 16, 921–926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Furmark, T., Tillfors, M., Garpenstrand, H., Marteinsdottir, I., Langstrom, B., Oreland, L. et al. (2004). Serotonin transporter polymorphism related to amygdala excitability and symptom severity in patients with social phobia. Neuroscience Letters, 362, 189–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Garland, J. E. (2001). Sleep disturbances in anxious children. In G. Stores & L. Wiggs (Eds.), Sleep disturbance in children and adolescents with disorders of development: Its significance and management (pp. 155–160). London: Mac Keith PressGoogle Scholar
  38. Goldsmith, H. H., & Lemery, K. S. (2000). Linking temperamental fearfulness and anxiety symptoms: A behavior-genetic perspective. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 1199–1209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Goodman, R., & Stevenson, J. (1991). Parental criticism and warmth toward unrecognised monozygotic twins. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, 394–395Google Scholar
  40. Gottesman, I. I., & Gould, T. D. (2003). The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: Etymology and strategic intentions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 636–645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Greenberg, B. D., Li, Q., Lucas, F. R., Hu, S., Sirota, L. A., Benjamin, J. et al. (2000). Association between the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism and personality traits in a primarily female population sample. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 96, 202–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gregory, A. M., Caspi, A., Eley, T. C., Moffitt, T. E., O’Connor, T. G., & Poulton, R. (2005). Prospective longitudinal associations between persistent sleep problems in childhood and anxiety and depression disorders in adulthood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 157–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gregory, A. M., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Koenen, K., Eley, T. C., & Poulton, R. (2007). Juvenile mental health histories of adults with anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 301–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gregory, A. M., Eley, T. C., O’Connor, T. G., Rijsdijk, F. V., & Plomin, R. (2005). Family influences on the association between sleep problems and anxiety in a large sample of pre-school aged twins. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1337–1348Google Scholar
  45. Gregory, A. M., Eley, T. C., & Plomin, R. (2004). Exploring the association between anxiety and conduct problems in a large sample of twins aged 2-4. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 111–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gregory, A. M., Rijsdijk, F. V., & Eley, T. C. (2006). A twin-study of sleep difficulties in school-aged children. Child Development, 77, 1668–1679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hariri, A. R., Drabant, E. M., Munoz, K. E., Kolachana, L. S., Mattay, V. S., Egan, M. F. et al. (2005). A susceptibility gene for affective disorders and the response of the human amygdala. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 146–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hariri, A. R., Mattay, V. S., Tessitore, A., Kolachana, B., Fera, F., Goldman, D. et al. (2002). Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala. Science, 297, 400–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Heinz, A., Braus, D. F., Smolka, M. N., Wrase, J., Puls, I., Hermann, D. et al. (2005). Amygdala-prefrontal coupling depends on a genetic variation of the serotonin transporter. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 20–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hettema, J. M., Neale, M. C., & Kendler, K. S. (2001). A review and meta-analysis of the genetic epidemiology of anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1568–1578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hudziak, J. J., Van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M., Althoff, R. R., Stanger, C., Rettew, D. C., Nelson, E. C. et al. (2004). Genetic and environmental contributions to the child behavior checklist obsessive-compulsive scale – a cross-cultural twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 608–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Joyce, P. R., Rogers, G. R., Miller, A. L., Mulder, R. T., Luty, S. E., & Kennedy, M. A. (2003). Polymorphisms of DRD4 and DRD3 and risk of avoidant and obsessive personality traits and disorders. Psychiatry Research, 119, 1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Karayiorgou, M., Altemus, M., Galke, B. L., Goldman, D., Murphy, D. L., Ott, J. et al. (1997). Genotype determining low catechol-O-methyltransferase activity as a risk factor for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94, 4572–4575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kendler, K. S., Kuhn, J. W., Vittum, J., Prescott, C. A., & Riley, B. (2005). The interaction of stressful life events and a serotonin transporter polymorphism in the prediction of episodes of major depression – a replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 529–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kendler, K. S., Prescott, C. A., Myers, J., & Neale, M. C. (2003). The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 929–937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions’ of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kovacs, M., & Devlin, B. (1998). Internalizing disorders in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 47–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Krueger, R. F. (1999). The structure of common mental disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 921–926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lakatos, K., Nemoda, Z., Birkas, E., Ronai, Z., Kovacs, E., Ney, K. et al. (2003). Association of D4 dopamine receptor gene and serotonin transporter promoter polymorphisms with infants’ response to novelty. Molecular Psychiatry, 8, 90–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Last, C. G., Hersen, M., Kazdin, A. E., Orvaschel, H., & Perrin, S. (1991). Anxiety disorders in children and their families. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 928–934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lau, J. Y. F., Eley, T. C., & Stevenson, J. (2006). Examining the state-trait anxiety relationship: A behavioural genetic approach. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 19–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Legrand, L. N., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. G. (1999). A twin study of state and trait anxiety in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 953–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lesch, K. P., Bengel, D., Heils, A., Zhang Sabol, S., Greenburg, B. D., Petri, S. et al. (1996). Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Science, 274, 1527–1531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lichtenstein, P., & Annas, P. (2000). Heritability and prevalence of specific fears and phobias in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 927–937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Loehlin, J. C., & Nicholls, J. (1976). Heredity, environment and personality. Austin: University of TexasGoogle Scholar
  66. MacGillivray, I., Campbell, D. M., & Thompson, B. (1988). Twinning and twins. Chichister: WileyGoogle Scholar
  67. Martin, N., Boomsma, D. I., & Machin, G. (1997). A twin-pronged attack on complex trait. Nature Genetics, 17, 387–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. McGrath, M., Kawachi, I., Ascherio, A., Colditz, G. A., Hunter, D. J., & De Vivo, I. (2004). Association between catechol-O-methyltransferase and phobic anxiety. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1703–1705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Millet, B., Chabane, N., Delorme, R., Leboyer, M., Leroy, S., Poirier, M. F. et al. (2003). Association between the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene and obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B-Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 116B, 55–59Google Scholar
  70. Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., & Rutter, M. (2005). Strategy for investigating interactions between measured genes and measured environments. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 473–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Nelson, E. C., Grant, J. D., Bucholz, K. K., Glowinski, A., Madden, P. A. F., Reich, W. et al. (2000). Social phobia in population-based female adolescent twin sample: Co-morbidity and associated suicide-related symptoms. Psychological Medicine, 30, 797–804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Plomin, R., Coon, H., Carey, G., DeFries, J. C., & Fulker, D. W. (1991). Parent-offspring and sibling adoption analyses of parental ratings of temperament in infancy and childhood. Journal of Personality, 59, 705–732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., McClearn, G. E., & McGuffin, P. (2001). Behavioral genetics (4th edn.). New York: Worth PublishersGoogle Scholar
  74. Plomin, R., Emde, R. N., Braungart, J. M., Campos, J., Corley, R., Fulker, D. W. et al. (1993). Genetic change and continuity from fourteen to twenty months: The MacArthur longitudinal twin study. Child Development, 64, 1354–1376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Plomin, R., Owen, M. J., & McGuffin, P. (1994). The genetic basis of complex human behaviors. Science, 264, 1733–1739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Reiman, E. M. (1997). The application of positron emission tomography to the study of normal and pathologic emotions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 58, 4–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Risch, N., & Merikangas, K. R. (1996). The future of genetic studies of complex human diseases. Science, 273, 1516–1517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Robinson, J. L., Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., & Corley, R. (1992). The heritability of inhibited and uninhibited behavior: A twin study. Developmental Psychology, 28, 1030–1037Google Scholar
  79. Rutter, M. (2006). Genes and behavior. Oxford: BlackwellGoogle Scholar
  80. Rutter, M., Bolton, P., Harrington, R., Le Couteur, A., Macdonald, H., & Simonoff, E. (1990). Genetic factors in child psychiatric disorders – I. A review of research strategies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 3–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Rutter, M., Thorpe, K., Greenwood, R., Northstone, K., & Golding, J. (2003). Twins as a natural experiment to study the causes of mild language delay: I: Design; twin-singleton differences in language, and obstetric risks. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 326–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Saudino, K. J., Cherny, S. S., & Plomin, R. (2000). Parent ratings of temperament in twins: Explaining the ‘too low’ DZ correlations. Twin Research, 3, 224–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Savitz, J. B., & Ramesar, R. S. (2004). Genetic variants implicated in personality: A review of the more promising candidates. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B-Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 131B, 20–32Google Scholar
  84. Schmidt, L. A., Fox, N. A., Rubin, K. H., Hu, S., & Hamer, D. H. (2002). Molecular genetics of shyness and aggression in preschoolers. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 227–238Google Scholar
  85. Schmitz, S., Saudino, K. J., Plomin, R., Fulker, D. W., & DeFries, J. C. (1996). Genetic and environmental influences on temperament in middle childhood: Analyses of teacher and tester ratings. Child Development, 67, 409–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Schulkin, J., Gold, P. W., & McEwen, B. S. (1998). Induction of corticotropin-releasing hormone gene expression by glucocorticoids: Implication for understanding the states of fear and anxiety and allostatic load. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 23, 219–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Silberg, J. L., & Bulik, C. M. (2005). The developmental association between eating disorders symptoms and symptoms of depression and anxiety in juvenile twin girls. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 1317–1326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Silberg, J. L., Rutter, M., Neale, M., & Eaves, L. (2001). Genetic moderation of environmental risk for depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 116–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Silberg, J. L., Rutter, M., & Eaves, L. (2001). Genetic and environmental influences on the temporal association between earlier anxiety and later depression in girls. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 1040–1049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Silove, D., Manicavasagar, V., O’Connell, D., & Morris-Yates, A. (1995). Genetic factors in early separation anxiety: Implications for the genesis of adult anxiety disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 92, 17–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Smoller, J. W., Rosenbaum, J. F., Biederman, J., Kennedy, J., Dai, D., Racette, S. R. et al. (2003). Association of a genetic marker at the corticotropin-releasing hormone locus with behavioral inhibition. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 1376–1381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Stein, M. B., Jang, K. L., & Livesley, W. J. (1999). Heritability of anxiety sensitivity: A twin study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 246–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Stevenson, J., Batten, N., & Cherner, M. (1992). Fears and fearfulness in children and adolescents: A genetic analysis of twin data. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 977–985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Stevenson, J., & Fielding, J. (1985). Ratings of temperament in families of young twins. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 3, 143–152Google Scholar
  95. Stoolmiller, M. (1999). Implications of the restricted range of family environments for estimates of heritability and nonshared environment in behavior-genetic adoption studies. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 392–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Thapar, A., & McGuffin, P. (1995). Are anxiety symptoms in childhood heritable? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 439–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Thapar, A. & McGuffin, P. (1996). A twin study of antisocial and neurotic symptoms in childhood. Psychological Medicine, 26, 1111–1118Google Scholar
  98. Thapar, A., & McGuffin, P. (1997). Anxiety and depressive symptoms in childhood – a genetic study of comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 651–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Thorpe, K., Golding, J., MacGillivray, I., & Greenwood, R. (1991). Comparison of prevalence of depression in mothers of twins and mothers of singletons. British Medical Journal, 302, 875–878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tochigi, M., Kato, C., Otowa, T., Hibino, H., Marui, T., Ohtani, T. et al. (2006). Association between corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2) gene polymorphism and personality traits. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 60, 524–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Topolski, T. D., Hewitt, J. K., Eaves, L., Meyer, J. M., Silberg, J. L., Simonoff, E. et al. (1999). Genetic and environmental influences on ratings of manifest anxiety by parents and children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 371–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Topolski, T. D., Hewitt, J. K., Eaves, L. J., Silberg, J. L., Meyer, J. M., Rutter, M. et al. (1997). Genetic and environmental influences on child reports of manifest anxiety and symptoms of separation anxiety and overanxious disorders: A community-based twin study. Behavior Genetics, 27, 15–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C., & Costello, A. (1987). Psychopathology in the offspring of anxiety disordered patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 229–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. van den Oord, E. J. C. G., Boomsma, D. I., & Verhulst, F. C. (1994). A study of problem behaviors in 10- to 15-year-old biologically related and unrelated international adoptees. Behavior Genetics, 24, 193–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. van den Oord, E. J. C. G., Boomsma, D. I., & Verhulst, F. C. (2000). A study of genetic and environmental effects on the co-occurrence of problem behaviors in three-year-old twins. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 360–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. van den Oord, E. J. C. G., & Rowe, D. C. (1997). Continuity and change in children’s social maladjustment: A developmental behavior genetic study. Developmental Psychology, 33, 319–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. van der Valk, J. C., van den Oord, E. J. C. G., Verhulst, F. C., & Boomsma, D. I. (2001). Using parental ratings to study the etiology of 3-year-old twins’ problem behaviors: Different views or rater bias? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 921–931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Warren, S. L., Schmitz, S., & Emde, R. (1999). Behavioral genetic analyses of self-reported anxiety at 7 years of age. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1403–1408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Weissman, M. M., Leckman, J. F., Merikangas, K. R., Gammon, G. D., Prusoff, B. A. (1984). Depression and anxiety disorders in parents and children: Results from the Yale Family Study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 845–852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Young, S. E., Smolen, A., Stallings, M. C., Corley, R. P., & Hewitt, J. K. (2003). Sibling-based association analyses of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and internalizing behavior problems in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 961–967PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychology Department, Goldsmiths CollegeUniversity of LondonNew Cross, LondonUK
  2. 2.Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of PsychiatryKing’s College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations