*Aronfreed, J. (1961). The nature, variety, and social patterning of moral responses to transgression. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 223–241.
Aronfreed, J. (1968). Aversive control of socialization. In W. J. Arnold (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (Vol. 16, pp. 271–320). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Axelrod, S., & Apsche, J. (Eds.). (1983). The effects of punishment on human behavior. New York: Academic Press.
Bauman, L. J., & Friedman, S. B. (1998). Corporal punishment. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 45, 403–414.
Baumrind, D. (1973). The development of instrumental competence through socialization. In A. D. Pick (Ed.), Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology (Vol. 7, pp. 3–46). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Baumrind, D. (1983). Specious causal attributions in the social sciences: The reformulated stepping-stone theory of heroin use as exemplar. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11, 56–95.
Baumrind, D., Larzelere, R. E., & Cowan, P. A. (2002). Ordinary physical punishment: Is it harmful? Comment on Gershoff (2002). Psychological Bulletin, 128, 580–589.
*Bean, A. W., & Roberts, M. W. (1981). The effect of time-out release contingencies on changes in child noncompliance. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 9, 95–105.
Bee, H. (1998). Lifespan development (2nd ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Bell, R. Q., & Harper, L. V. (1977). Child effects on adults. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Benjet, C., & Kazdin, A. E. (2003). Spanking children: The controversies, findings, and new directions. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 197–224.
Berger, K. S., & Thompson, R. A. (1995). The developing person through childhood and adolescence (4th ed.). New York: Worth.
Bornstein, M. H., & Lamb, M. E. (Eds.). (1988). Developmental psychology: An advanced textbook (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Brezina, T. (1999). Teenage violence toward parents as an adaptation to family strain: Evidence from a national survey of male adolescents. Youth & Society, 30, 416–444.
*Burton, R. V., Maccoby, E. E., & Allinsmith, W. (1961). Antecedents of resistance to temptation in four-year-old children. Child Development, 32, 689–710.
Campbell, D. T., & Boruch, R. F. (1975). Making the case for randomized assignment to treatments by considering the alternatives: Six ways in which quasi-experimental evaluations in compensatory education tend to underestimate effects. In C. A. Bennett & A. A. Lumsdaine (Eds.), Evaluation and experiment: Some critical issues in assessing social programs (pp. 195–296). New York: Academic Press.
Campbell, D. T., & Erlebacher, A. E. (1970). How regression artifacts in quasi-experimental evaluations can mistakenly make compensatory education look harmful. In J. Hellmuth (Ed.), Disadvantaged child: Vol. 3. Compensatory education: A national debate (pp. 185–210). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
*Chapman, M., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (1982). Young children’s compliance and noncompliance to parental discipline in a natural setting. International Journal of Behavioral Development,
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
*Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco, CA: Freeman.
*Crowne, D. P., Conn, L. K., Marlowe, D., & Edwards, C. N. (1969). Some developmental antecedents of level of aspiration. Journal of Personality, 37, 73–92.
Damer, T. E. (1980). Attacking faulty reasoning. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
*Day, D. E., & Roberts, M. W. (1983). An analysis of the physical punishment component of a parent training program. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 11, 141–152.
EPOCH-Worldwide. (2004). Legal reform: Corporal punishment of children in the family. Retrieved on October 27, 2004 from http://www.stophitting.com/laws/legalReform.php.
Etaugh, C., & Rathus, S. A. (1995). The world of children. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace.
Eyberg, S. (1993). The spank back-up in time-out with preschool children. Unpublished manuscript, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Eysenck, H. (1993). Letter to the editor: Hitting the right cause. The Psychologist, 6, 392.
Friedman, S. B., & Schonberg, S. K. (1996a). Consensus statements. Pediatrics, 98, 852–853.
Friedman, S. B., & Schonberg, S. K. (1996b). [Personal statement]. Pediatrics, 98, 857–858.
Gershoff, E. T. (2002). Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 539–579.
Glass, G. V., McGaw, B., & Smith, M. L. (1981). Meta-analysis in social research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Graziano, A. M., Hamblen, L., & Plante, W. A. (1996). Subabusive violence in child rearing in middle-class American families. Pediatrics, 98, 845–848.
*Grinder, R. E. (1962). Parental childrearing practices, conscience, and resistance to temptation of sixth grade children. Child Development, 33, 803–820.
Grogan-Kaylor, A. (2004). The effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior in children. Social Work Research,
Grolnick, W. S., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1997). Internalization within the family: The self-determination theory perspective. In J. E. Grusec & L. Kuczynski (Eds.), Parenting and children’s internalization of values (pp. 135–161). New York: Wiley.
Grusec, J. (1997). A history of research on parenting strategies and children’s internalization of values. In J. E. Grusec & L. Kuczynski (Eds.), Parenting and children’s internalization of values (pp. 3–22). New York: Wiley.
Grusec, J. E., & Goodnow, J. J. (1994). Impact of parental discipline methods on the child’s internalization of values: A reconceptualization of current points of view. Developmental Psychology, 30, 4–19.
Gunnoe, M. L., & Mariner, C. L. (1997). Toward a developmental-contextual model of the effects of parental spanking on children’s aggression. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 151, 768–775.
*Hall, E. C. (1994). A correlational analysis of parental conflict resolution practices and 4- and 5-year-old children’s interpersonal problem-solving skills and verbal abilities in a preschool setting (Doctoral dissertation, University of San Francisco, 1994). Dissertation Abstracts International, 55(12A), 3785.
Harris, J. R. (1998). The nurture assumption. New York: Free Press.
Hedges, L. V. (1994). Fixed effects models. In H. Cooper & L. V. Hedges (Eds.), The handbook of research synthesis (pp. 285–300). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Hoffman, M. L. (1970). Conscience, personality, and socialization techniques. Human Development, 13, 90–126.
Hoffman, M. L. (1977). Moral internalization: Current theory and research. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 10, pp. 85–133). New York: Academic Press.
Holden, G. W. (1997). Parents and the dynamics of child rearing. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Ispa, J. M., & Halgunseth, L. C. (2004). Talking about corporal punishment: Nine low-income African American mothers’ perspectives. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19, 463–484.
Johnson, B. T. (1989). DSTAT: Software for the meta-analytic review of research literatures. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kadushin, A., & Martin, J. A. (1981). Child abuse: An interactional event. New York: Columbia University Press.
Kochanska, G., Padavich, D. L., & Koenig, A. L. (1996). Children’s narratives about hypothetical moral dilemmas and objective measures of their conscience: Mutual relations and socialization antecedents. Child Development, 67, 1420–1436.
Larzelere, R. E. (2000). Child outcomes of nonabusive and customary physical punishment by parents: An updated literature review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review,
Larzelere, R. E. (2001). Combining love and limits in authoritative parenting. In J. C. Westman (Ed.), Parenthood in America (pp. 81–89). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Larzelere, R. E. (2002). The effectiveness of alternative disciplinary tactics in reducing various types of noncompliance within extended discipline episodes. Unpublished manuscript, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha.
Larzelere, R. E. (2004). Weighted analyses of the Canadian prevalence of physical punishment by children’s age from Cycle 1 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Unpublished raw data.
Larzelere, R. E., Baumrind, D., & Polite, K. (1998). Two emerging perspectives of parental spanking from two 1996 conferences. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine,
Larzelere, R. E., & Johnson, B. (1999). Evaluation of the effects of Sweden’s spanking ban on physical child abuse rates: A literature review. Psychological Reports, 85, 381–392.
*Larzelere, R. E., Klein, M., Schumm, W. R., & Alibrando, S. A., Jr. (1989). Relations of spanking and other parenting characteristics to self-esteem and perceived fairness of parental discipline. Psychological Reports, 64, 1140–1142.
Larzelere, R. E., Kuhn, B. R., & Johnson, B. (2004). The intervention selection bias: An underrecognized confound in intervention research. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 289–303.
*Larzelere, R. E., Sather, P. R., Schneider, W. N., Larson, D. B., & Pike, P. L. (1998). Punishment enhances reasoning’s effectiveness as a disciplinary response to toddlers. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60, 388–403.
*Larzelere, R. E., Schneider, W. N., Larson, D. B., & Pike, P. L. (1996). The effects of discipline responses in delaying toddler misbehavior recurrences. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 18(3), 35–57.
*Larzelere, R. E., & Smith, G. L. (2000, August). Controlled longitudinal effects of five disciplinary tactics on antisocial behavior. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (1993). The efficacy of psychological, educational, and behavioral treatment: Confirmation from meta-analysis. American Psychologist, 48, 1181–1209.
Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
*Lytton, H. (1977). Correlates of compliance and the rudiments of conscience in two-year-old boys. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 9, 242–257.
Matson, J. L., & Taras, M. (1989). A 20 year review of punishment and alternative methods to treat problem behaviors of developmentally delayed persons. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 10, 85–104.
*McClelland, D. C., & Pilon, D. A. (1983). Sources of adult motives in patterns of parent behavior in early childhood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 564–574.
McNeil, C. B., Clemens-Mowrer, L., Gurwitch, R. H., & Funderburk, B. W. (1994). Assessment of a new procedure to prevent timeout escape in preschoolers. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 16(3), 27–35.
*Minton, C., Kagan, J., & Levine, J. A. (1971). Maternal control and obedience in the two-year-old. Child Development, 42, 1873–1894.
National Institutes of Health. (1991). Treatment of destructive behaviors in persons with developmental disabilities (NIH Publication No. 91-2410). Bethesda, MD: Author.
Newsom, C., Favell, J. E., & Rincover, A. (1983). Side effects of punishment. In S. Axelrod & J. Apsche (Eds.), The effects of punishment on human behavior (pp. 285–316). New York: Academic Press.
Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia Press.
*Ritchie, K. L. (1999). Maternal behaviors and cognitions during discipline episodes: A comparison of power bouts and single acts of noncompliance. Developmental Psychology, 35, 580–589.
*Roberts, M. W. (1984). An attempt to reduce timeout resistance in young children. Behavior Therapy, 15, 210–216.
*Roberts, M. W. (1988). Enforcing chair timeouts with room timeouts. Behavior Modification, 12, 353–370.
Roberts, M. W., & Powers, S. W. (1990). Adjusting chair timeout enforcement procedures for oppositional children. Behavior Therapy, 21, 257–271.
Rothman, K. J., & Greenland, S. (1998). Modern epidemiology (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.
*Sears, R. R. (1961). Relation of early socialization experiences to aggression in middle childhood. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 466–492.
*Sears, R. R., Maccoby, E. E., & Levin, H. (1957). Patterns of child-rearing. New York: Harper & Row.
Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Shadish, W. R., & Haddock, C. K. (1994). Combining estimates of effect size. In H. Cooper & L. V. Hedges (Eds.), Handbook of research synthesis (pp. 261–281). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Simons, R. L., Lin, K.-H., & Gordon, L. C. (1998). Socialization in the family of origin and male dating violence: A prospective study. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60, 467–478.
Smith, D. (2002). Journal article reignites debate over corporal punishment. Monitor on Psychology, 33(8), 14.
Statistics Sweden. (1996). Spanking and other forms of physical punishment (Demography, the Family, and Children 1996:1.2). Stockholm: Author.
Stattin, H., Janson, H., Klackenberg-Larsson, I., & Magnusson, D. (1995). Corporal punishment in everyday life: An intergenerational perspective. In J. McCord (Ed.), Coercion and punishment in long-term perspectives (pp. 315–347). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
*Straus, M. A. (2001). Beating the devil out of them: Corporal punishment in American families and its effects on children (2nd ed.). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Straus, M. A., & Mouradian, V. E. (1998). Impulsive corporal punishment by mothers and antisocial behavior and impulsiveness of children. Behavioral Sciences and the Law,
Straus, M. A., & Paschall, M. J. (1998, August 1). Corporal punishment by mothers and child’s cognitive development: A longitudinal study. Paper presented at the 14th World Congress of Sociology, Montreal, Canada.
Straus, M. A., & Stewart, J. H. (1999). Corporal punishment by American parents: National data on prevalence, chronicity, severity, and duration, in relation to child and family characteristics. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2, 55–70.
Straus, M. A., Sugarman, D. B., & Giles-Sims, J. (1997). Spanking by parents and subsequent antisocial behavior of children. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine,
*Tennant, F. S., Jr., Detels, R., & Clark, V. (1975). Some childhood antecedents of drug and alcohol abuse. American Journal of Epidemiology, 102, 377–385.
Turner, H. A., & Muller, P. A. (2004). Long-term effects of child corporal punishment on depressive symptoms in young adults: Potential moderators and mediators. Journal of Family Issues, 25, 761–782.
Walters, G. C., & Grusec, J. E. (1977). Punishment. San Francisco: Freeman.
*Watson, D. G. (1989). Parenting styles and child behavior: A study of retrospective reports from parents of 2500 high school students (Doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1989). Dissertation Abstracts International, 50(7B), 3181.
Webster-Stratton, C. (1990). Enhancing the effectiveness of self-administered videotape parent training for families with conduct-problem children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 479–492.
*Yarrow, M. R., Campbell, J. D., & Burton, R. V. (1968). Child rearing: An inquiry into research and methods. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
*Zahn-Waxler, C., Radke-Yarrow, M., & King, R. (1979). Child rearing and children’s prosocial initiations toward victims of distress. Child Development, 50, 319–330.