Exploring the Relationship Between Quality Rating and Improvement System Supports and Global Quality in Family Child Care

Abstract

Background

A Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS) is one widespread method to provide a framework for quality improvement in early care and education. However, there is little research examining the relationship between QRIS supports and quality changes in family child care programs.

Objective

This study aims to examine the associations between supports offered through Delaware’s QRIS and global quality changes in family child care programs. Delaware’s QRIS supports included financial incentives and on-site technical assistance.

Method

Data were extracted from the administrative database on 139 family child care programs participating in the QRIS. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine the effects of time and Delaware’s QRIS supports.

Results

Results showed significant relationships between QRIS supports and the improvement of global quality in family child care programs as measured by the Family Child Care Environment Rating Scale-Revised. Specifically, the amount of on-site technical assistance was significantly associated with changes in the Interaction and Program Structure subscale scores. Additionally, grants received through the QRIS were significantly associated with quality improvements in the home environment.

Conclusion

Considering that the amount of technical assistance alone was effective in improving the global quality of family child care programs, professional development strategies that aim to articulate and enhance the technical assistance that is provided to programs would be useful. Further, various types of financial incentives are encouraged to assist family child care programs in improving the structural quality of their environments.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Abell, E., Arsiwalla, D. D., Putnam, R. I., & Miller, E. B. (2014). Mentoring and facilitating professional engagement as quality enhancement strategies: An overview and evaluation of the family child care partnerships program. Child & Youth Care Forum,43(5), 569–592. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-014-9254-1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Ansari, A., & Winsler, A. (2012). School readiness among low-income, Latino children attending family childcare versus centre-based care. Early Child Development and Care,182(11), 1465–1485. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2011.622755.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Arnett, J. (1989). Caregiver interaction scale. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Barnard, W., Smith, W. E., Fiene, R., & Swanson, K. (2006). Evaluation of Pennsylvania’s Keystone STARS quality rating system in child care settings. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Office of Child Development.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bassok, D., Fitzpatrick, M., Greenberg, E., & Loeb, S. (2016). Within-and between-sector quality differences in early childhood education and care. Child Development,87(5), 1627–1645. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12551.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Blasberg, A., Bromer, J., Nugent, C., Porter, T., Shivers, E.M., Tonyan, H., Tout, K., & Weber, B. (2019). A conceptual model for quality in home-based child care. OPRE Report #2019-37. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Boller, K., Paulsell, D., Grosso, P. D., Blair, R., Lundquist, E., Kassow, D. Z., et al. (2015). Impacts of a child care quality rating and improvement system on child care quality. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,30, 306–315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.10.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bromer, J., & Korfmacher, J. (2017). Providing high-quality support services to home-based child care: A conceptual model and literature review. Early Education and Development,28(6), 745–772. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2016.1256720.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bryant, D. M., Wesley, P. W., Burchinal, M., Sideris, J., Taylor, K., Fenson, C., et al. (2009). The QUINCE-PFI study: An evaluation of a promising model for child care provider training: Final report. Chapel Hill, NC: FPG Child Development Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Burchinal, M., Howes, C., & Kontos, S. (2002). Structural predictors of child care quality in child care homes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,17(1), 87–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(02)00132-1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Cannon, J. S., Zellman, G. L., Karoly, L. A., & Schwartz, H. L. (2017). Quality rating and improvement systems for early care and education programs: Making the second generation better. RAND. Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/perspectives/PE200/PE235/RAND_PE235.pdf

  12. Chaudry, A., Pedroza, J. M., Sandstrom, H., Danzinger, A., Grosz, M., Scott, M., & Ting, S. (2011). Child care choices of low-income working families. Urban Institute. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED578676.pdf

  13. Clarke-Stewart, K. A., Vandell, D. L., Burchinal, M., O’Brien, M., & McCartney, K. (2002). Do regulable features of child-care homes affect children’s development? Early childhood research quarterly,17(1), 52–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(02)00133-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Coley, R. L., Chase-Lansdale, P. L., & Li-Grining, C. P. (2001). Child care in the era of welfare reform: Quality, choices, and preferences. Policy brief, 01-4. Report of Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University.

  15. Delaware Institute for Excellence in Early Childhood. (2012). Delaware Early Childhood Career Lattice. Retrieved from https://dieecpd.org/static/uploads/files/career-lattice-chart-may-2012-final.pdf

  16. Doherty, G., Forer, B., Lero, D. S., Goelman, H., & LaGrange, A. (2006). Predictors of quality in family child care. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,21(3), 296–312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2006.07.006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Elicker, J., Clawson, C., Hong, S. Y., Kim, T.-E., Evangelou, D., & Kontos, S. J. (2005). Child care for working poor families: Child development and parent employment outcomes. Center for Family Publications. Purdue University. Retrieved from https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1036&context=cffpub

  18. Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Forry, N., Iruka, I., Tout, K., Torquati, J., Susman-Stillman, A., Bryant, D., et al. (2013). Predictors of quality and child outcomes in family child care settings. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,28(4), 893–904. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.05.006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Fukkink, R. G., & Lont, A. (2007). Does training matter? A meta-analysis and review of caregiver training studies. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,22, 294–311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2007.04.005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Fuligni, A. S., Howes, C., Lara-Cinisomo, S., & Karoly, L. (2009). Diverse pathways in early childhood professional development: An exploration of early educators in public preschools, private preschools, and family child care homes. Early Education and Development,20(3), 507–526. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409280902783483.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. Fuller, B., & Kagan, S. L. (2000). Remember the children: mothers balance work and child care under welfare reform: Growing Up in Poverty Project 2000: Wave 1 findings–California, Connecticut. Florida: Graduate School of Education-PACE, University of California.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Goodson, B. D., & Layzer, J. I. (2010). Defining and measuring quality in home-based care settings. OPRE research-to-policy, research-to-practice brief OPRE 2011-10d. Washington, DC: Office of Planning. Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, US Department of Health and Human Services.

  24. Groeneveld, M. G., Vermeer, H. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Linting, M. (2011). Enhancing home-based child care quality through video-feedback intervention: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Family Psychology,25(1), 86–96. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022451.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Hallam, R. A., Bargreen, K. N., & Ridgley, R. (2013). Quality in family child care settings: The relationship between provider educational experiences and global quality scores in a statewide quality rating and improvement system. Journal of Research in Childhood Education,27(4), 393–406. https://doi.org/10.1080/02568543.2013.822950.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Hallam, R. A., Hooper, A., Buell, M., Ziegler, M., & Han, M. (2019). Boosting family child care success in Quality Rating and Improvement Systems. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,47(2), 239–247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.12.008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Hamm, K., Gault, B., & Jones-DeWeever, A. (2005). In our own backyards: Local and state strategies to improve the quality of family child care. Institute for Women’s Policy Research.

  28. Harms, T., & Clifford, R. M. (1989). The Family Day Care Rating Scale. Columbia: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Harms, T., Cryer, D., & Clifford, R. M. (2007). Family child care environment rating scale-revised edition (FCCERS-R). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Hooper, A. (2018). Predictors of instructional practices among a nationally representative sample of home-based child care providers. Child & Youth Care Forum,40(5), 747–768. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-018-9456-z.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Hooper, A., & Hallam, R. (2019). Identifying profiles of listed home-based child care providers based on their beliefs and self-reported practices. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,47(2), 194–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.11.008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Huberty, C. J., & Morris, J. D. (1989). Multivariate analysis versus multiple univariate analyses. Psychological Bulletin,105(2), 302. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.105.2.302.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Hughes-Belding, K., Hegland, S., Stein, A., Sideris, J., & Bryant, D. (2012). Predictors of global quality in family child care homes: Structural and belief characteristics. Early Education & Development,23(5), 697–712. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2011.574257.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Isner, T., Tout, K., Zaslow, M., Soli, M., Quinn, K., Rothenberg, L., & Burkhauser, M. (2011). Coaching in Early Care and Education Programs and Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS): Identifying Promising Features. Child Trends.

  35. Kim, J., & Fram, M. S. (2009). Profiles of choice: Parents’ patterns of priority in child care decision-making. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,24(1), 77–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2008.10.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Koh, S., & Neuman, S. B. (2009). The impact of professional development in family child care: A practice-based approach. Early Education and Development,20(3), 537–562. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409280902908841.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Lanigan, J. D. (2011). Family child care providers’ perspectives regarding effective professional development and their role in the child care system: A qualitative study. Early Childhood Education Journal,3(6), 399–409. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-010-0420-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Layzer, J. I., & Goodson, B. D. (2006). The quality of early care and education settings: Definitional and measurement issues. Evaluation Review,30(5), 556–576. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193841x06291524.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Marshall, N. L., Robeson, W. W., Tracy, A. J., Frye, A., & Roberts, J. (2013). Subsidized child care, maternal employment and access to quality, affordable child care. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,28(4), 808–819. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.07.008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. McCabe, L. A., & Cochran, M. M. (2008). Can home visiting increase the quality of home-based child care? Findings from the Caring for Quality Project (Cornell Early Childhood Program Research Brief No. 3). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, College of Human Ecology, Early Childhood Program. Retrieved from http://www.human.cornell.edu/fldc/cecp/resources/loader.cfm?csModule=security/getfile&PageID=48184.

  41. Mitchell, A. W. (2005). Stair steps to quality: A guide for states and communities developing quality rating systems for early care and education. Alexandria, VA: United Way of America.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Mitchell, A. (2012). Financial incentives in quality rating and improvement systems: Approaches and effects. QRIS National Learning Network. As of February, 1, 2015. Retrieved from https://qrisnetwork.org/sites/all/files/resources/gscobb/2012-05-24%2015:13/Approaches%20to%20Financial%20Incentives%20in%20QRIS.pdf

  43. Morrissey, T. W., & Banghart, P. (2007). Family child care in the United States. Retrieved from www.researchconnections.org

  44. National Association for the Education of Young Children [NAEYC], & National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral [NACCRA]. (2011). Early childhood education professional development: Training and technical assistance glossary. Retrieved from https://www.naeyc.org/sites/default/%20files/globally-shared/downloads/PDFs/our-work/public-policy-advocacy/%20glossarytraining%20ta.pdf

  45. National Center on Early Childhood Quality Assurance. (2015). Research brief #2: Trends in family child care home licensing regulations and policies for 2014. Washington, DC: Office of Child Care, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

    Google Scholar 

  46. National Survey of Early Care and Education Project Team. (2015). Fact sheet: Who is providing home-based early care and education? OPRE report No. 2015-43. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

  47. National Survey of Early Care and Education Project Team. (2016). Characteristics of home-based early care and education providers: Initial findings from the National Survey of Early Care and Education (NSECE). OPRE Report #2016-13, Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

  48. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2000). The relation of child care to cognitive and language development. Child Development. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2002). Early child care and children’s development prior to school entry: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. American Educational Research Journal,39(1), 133–164. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312039001133.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2004). Type of child care and children’s development at 54 months. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,19(2), 203–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2004.04.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Office of Child Care Licensing. (2019). DECLCARE: Regulations for family and large family child care homes. Department of Services for Children, Youth and their Families. Retrieved from https://kids.delaware.gov/occl/pdf/delacare-regulations-fcc-and-lfcc-2019.pdf.

  52. Ota, C. L., & Austin, A. M. B. (2013). Training and mentoring: Family child care providers’ use of linguistic inputs in conversations with children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,28(4), 972–983. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.04.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Paulsell, D., Boller, K., Aikens, N., Kovac, M., & Del Grosso, P. (2008). Better beginnings: The state of early learning and kindergarten readiness in East Yakima and White Center. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Paulsell, D., Porter, T., Kirby, G., Boller, K., Martin, E. S., Burwick, A.,… & Begnoche, C. (2010). Supporting quality in home-based child care: Initiative design and evaluation options. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research. Retrieved from https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/opre/supporting_options.pdf

  55. Perkins, K. J. (2016). A multi-care study of the onsite assistance systems, activities and supports of quality rating and improvement systems (unpublished doctoral dissertation). Newark, DE: University of Delaware.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Porter, T., Paulsell, D., Del Grosso, P., Avellar, S., Hass, R., & Vuong, L. (2010). A review of the literature on home-based child care: Implications for future directions. Princeton, NJ: Mathematical Policy Research.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Raikes, H. A., Raikes, H. H., & Wilcox, B. (2005). Regulation, subsidy receipt and provider characteristics: What predicts quality in child care homes? Early Childhood Research Quarterly,20(2), 164–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2005.04.006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Rusby, J. C. (2002). Training needs and challenges of family child care providers. Child & Youth Care Forum,31(5), 281–293. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016822526497.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Schousboe, I., & Winther-Lindqvist, D. (2013). Children’s play and development: Cultural-historical perspectives. New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Sheridan, S. M., Edwards, C. P., Marvin, C. A., & Knoche, L. L. (2009). Professional development in early childhood programs: Process issues and research needs. Early education and development,20(3), 377–401. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409280802582795.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  61. Smith, S., Robbins, T., Schneider, W., Kreader, J. L., & Ong, C. (2012). Coaching and quality assistance in quality rating improvement systems: Approaches used by TA providers to improve quality in early care and education programs and home-based settings. National Center for Children in Poverty.

  62. Smith, S., Schneider, W. J., & Kreader, J. L. (2010). Features of professional development and on-site assistance in child care quality rating improvement systems: A survey of state-wide systems. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved from http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_1047.html

  63. Tarrant, K., & Huerta, L. A. (2015). Substantive or symbolic stars: Quality rating and improvement systems through a new institutional lens. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,30, 327–338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.04.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. The Build Initiative & Child Trends. (2019). Comparison of Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) [Data System}. Retrieved from http://qriscompendium.org

  65. Tout, K., & Zaslow, M. (2006). Observations of family, friends and neighbors in Minnesota: A report of the Minnesota child care research partnership. A report of the Minnesota Child Care Policy Research Partnership. Retrieved from https://www.leg.state.mn.us/docs/2009/other/091023.pdf

  66. Votruba-Drzal, E., Levine Coley, R., & Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, P. (2004). Child care and low-income children’s development: Direct and moderated effects. Child Development,75(1), 296–312. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00670.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Yazejian, N., & Iruka, I. U. (2015). Associations among tiered quality rating and improvement system supports and quality improvement. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,30, 255–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.05.005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jing Tang.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

Access to Data

The first author takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tang, J., Hallam, R.A., Francis, J. et al. Exploring the Relationship Between Quality Rating and Improvement System Supports and Global Quality in Family Child Care. Child Youth Care Forum (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-020-09565-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Quality rating and improvement system
  • Family child care
  • Child care quality