Skip to main content

The Changing Face of Teenage Parenthood in the United States: Evidence from NLSY79 and NLSY97

Abstract

Background

Previous studies identify consistent patterns of economically disadvantaged backgrounds, educational deficits, and relatively weak labor market outcomes of teen parents.

Objective

In this study, we provide an updated report on differences in adult cohabitation rates during past decades, examine the risk factors associated with becoming a teen parent, and track teen parents’ educational and labor market outcomes until the age of 29 to examine whether the outcomes associated with become teen parents have changed in recent decades.

Methods

We select two nationally representative birth cohorts in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1979 and 1997 (N = 9821). We use the difference-in-difference approach to examine whether the positions of teen parents have progressed or worsened across the two cohorts.

Conclusion

The birth rates to teenage girls remained unchanged across the two cohorts, but the reported rates of teenage fatherhood increased. The proportions of both unmarried teenage fathers and mothers increased between the two cohorts. Teen fathers and mothers came increasingly from single-mother families with disadvantaged backgrounds. The proportion of teen mothers or fathers living with partners has not changed, but there has been a major shift from marriage to non-marital cohabitation. The education and earnings of the 1997 cohort of teen parents showed some progress relative to the earlier teen parent cohort, but no progress relative to peers who were not teen parents.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  • Abma, J. C., & Sonenstein, F. L. (2001). Sexual activity and contraceptive practices among teenagers in the United States, 1988 and 1995. Vital and Health Statistics Series 23, Data from the National Survey of Family Growth, 21, 1–79.

    Google Scholar 

  • Acs, G., & Nelson, S. (2004). Changes in living arrangements during the late 1990s: Do welfare policies matter? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 23(2), 273–290. doi:10.1002/pam.20004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Althaus, F. A., & Henshaw, S. K. (1994). The effects of mandatory delay laws on abortion patients and providers. Family Planning Perspectives, 26(5), 228–233. doi:10.2307/2135944.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Amato, P. R. (2005). The impact of family formation change on the cognitive, social, and emotional well-being of the next generation. The Future of Children, 15(2), 75–96.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Angrist, J. D., & Pischke, J. S. (2008). Mostly harmless econometrics: An empiricist’s companion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aparicio, E. M., Gioia, D., & Pecukonis, E. V. (2016). “I Can Get Through This and I Will Get Through This”: The unfolding journey of teenage motherhood in and beyond foster care. Qualitative Social Work. doi:10.1177/1473325016656047.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aquilino, W. S. (1996). The life course of children born to unmarried mothers: Childhood living arrangements and young adult outcomes. Journal of Marriage and Family, 58(2), 293–310. doi:10.2307/353496.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Argys, L. M., & Peters, H. E. (2003). Can adequate child support be legislated? Responses to guidelines and enforcement. Economic Inquiry, 41(3), 463–479. doi:10.1093/ei/cbg021.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barber, J. S., Axinn, W. G., & Thornton, A. (1999). Unwanted childbearing, health, and mother-child relationships. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40(3), 231–257.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barr, A. B., & Simons, R. L. (2012). College aspirations and expectations among new African-American mothers in late adolescence. Gender and Education, 24(7), 745–763. doi:10.1080/09540253.2012.712097.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bartfeld, J. (2000). Child support and the post-divorce economic well-being of mothers, fathers, and children. Demography, 37(2), 203–213. doi:10.2307/2648122.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Becker, G. S. (1981). A treatise on the family. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beutel, A. M. (2000). The relationship between adolescent nonmarital childbearing and educational expectation: A cohort and period comparison. Sociological Quarterly, 41(2), 297–314. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.2000.tb00097.x.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bitler, M., & Zavodny, M. (2001). The effect of abortion restrictions on the timing of abortions. Journal of Health Economics, 20(6), 1011–1032. doi:10.1016/S0167-6296(01)00106-0.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boden, J. M., Fergusson, D. M., & John Horwood, L. (2008). Early motherhood and subsequent life outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(2), 151–160. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01830.x.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Booth, A., Rustenbach, E., & McHale, S. (2008). Early family transitions and depressive symptom changes from adolescence to early adulthood. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(1), 3–14. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2007.00457.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boyer, D., & Fine, D. (1992). Sexual abuse as a factor in adolescent pregnancy and child maltreatment. Family Planning Perspectives, 24(1), 4–19. doi:10.2307/2135718.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, S. L. (2004). Family structure and child well-being: The significance of parental cohabitation. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(2), 351–367.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, S. L. (2006). Family structure transitions and adolescent well-being. Demography, 43(3), 447–461.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, S. L., Manning, W. D., & Stykes, J. B. (2015). Family structure and child well-being: Integrating family complexity. Journal of Marriage & Family, 77(1), 177–190. doi:10.1111/jomf.12145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bumpass, L., & Lu, H. H. (2000). Trends in cohabitation and implications for children’s family contexts in the United States. Population Studies, 54(1), 29–41. doi:10.2307/2584631.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cancian, M., Heinrich, C. J., & Chung, Y. (2013). Discouraging disadvantaged fathers’ employment: An unintended consequence of policies designed to support families. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 32(4), 758–784. doi:10.1002/pam.21707.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cancian, M., Meyer, D. R., & Han, E. (2011). Child support: Responsible fatherhood and the quid pro quo. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 635(1), 140–162. doi:10.1177/0002716210393640.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Card, D. (1995). Using geographic variation in college proximity to estimate the return to schooling. In L. N. Christopher, E. Kenneth Grant, & R. Swidinsky (Eds.), Aspects of Labour Market Behaviour: Essays in Honour of John Vanderkamp (pp. 201–221). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Card, D. (1999). The Causal Effect of Education on Earnings. In C. A. Orley & C. David (Eds.), Handbook of Labor Economics (Vol. 3, Part A, pp. 1801–1863). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

  • Card, D. (2001). Estimating the return to schooling: Progress on some persistent econometric problems. Econometrica, 69(5), 1127–1160.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Card, J. J., & Wise, L. L. (1978). Teenage mothers and teenage fathers: The impact of early childbearing on the parents’ personal and professional lives. Family Planning Perspectives, 10(4), 199–205. doi:10.2307/2134267.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carlson, M. J. (2006). Family structure, father involvement, and adolescent behavioral outcomes. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(1), 137–154.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carlson, M. J., & Corcoran, M. E. (2001). Family structure and children's behavioral and cognitive outcomes. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63(3), 779–792.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Case, A. C., Lin, I. F., & McLanahan, S. S. (2003). Explaining trends in child support: Economic, demographic, and policy effects. Demography, 40(1), 171–189. doi:10.2307/3180817.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cassetty, J. H., & Hutson, R. (2005). Effectiveness of federal incentives in shaping child support enforcement outcomes. Children and Youth Services Review, 27(3), 271–289.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chafel, J. A. (1994). Meeting the developmental needs of young children of teen parents: A critique of social policy and implications for advocacy. Child & Youth Care Forum, 23(5), 297–314. doi:10.1007/bf02209064.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chandra, A., Martinez, G. M., Mosher, W. D., Abma, J. C., & Jones, J. (2005). Fertility, family planning, and reproductive health of US women: Data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 23, Data from the National Survey of Family Growth, 25, 1–160.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cherlin, A., Griffith, J., & McCarthy, J. (1983). A note on maritally-disrupted men’s reports of child support in the June 1980 Current Population Survey. Demography, 20(3), 385–389. doi:10.2307/2061249.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cherlin, A. J. (2010). The marriage-go-round: The state of marriage and the family in America today. New York, NY: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chumbler, N. R., Sanetmatsu, H., & Parrish-Sprowl, J. (2014). The implementation of public health communication messages to promote teenage mothers’ sense of self and avert stigma. In J. J. Kronenfeld (Ed.), Research in the sociology of health care: Technology, communication, disparities and government options in health and health care services (Vol. 32, pp. 61–89). Bingley: Emerald Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Colman, S., & Joyce, T. (2011). Regulating abortion: Impact on patients and providers in Texas. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 30(4), 775–797. doi:10.1002/pam.20603.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cooksey, E. C. (1997). Consequences of young mothers’ marital histories for children’s cognitive development. Journal of Marriage and Family, 59(2), 245–261. doi:10.2307/353468.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Davis, T. M. (2002). An examination of repeat pregnancies using problem behavior theory: Is it really problematic? Journal of Youth Studies, 5(3), 337–351. doi:10.1080/1367626022000006018.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • de Fátima Rato Padin, M., de Souza e Silva, R., Chalem, E., Mitsuhiro, S. S., Barros, M. M., Guinsburg, R., et al. (2009). Brief report: A socio-demographic profile of multiparous teenage mothers. Journal of Adolescence, 32(3), 715–721. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2009.01.008.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dennis, A., Henshaw, S. K., Joyce, T. J., Finer, L. B., & Blanchard, K. (2009). The impact of laws requiring parental involvement for abortion: A literature review. New York: Guttmacher Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ellis-Sloan, K. (2014). Teenage mothers, stigma and their ‘Presentations of Self’. Sociological Research Online, 19(1), 9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ellwood, D. T., & Jencks, C. (2004). The uneven spread of single-parent families: What do we know? Where do we look for answers? In K. M. Neckerman (Ed.), Social inequality (pp. 3–78). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eshbaugh, E. M. (2008). Teen mothers: Marriage, cohabitation, and educational achievement. Journal of Family Social Work, 11(1), 3–16. doi:10.1080/10522150802007162.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fergusson, D. M., & Woodward, L. J. (2000). Teenage pregnancy and female educational underachievement: A prospective study of a New Zealand birth cohort. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62(1), 147–161. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00147.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fletcher, J. M., & Wolfe, B. L. (2012). The effects of teenage fatherhood on young adult outcomes. Economic Inquiry, 50(1), 182–201. doi:10.1111/j.1465-7295.2011.00372.x.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frost, J. J. (2013). US Women’s use of sexual and reproductive health services: Trends, sources of care and factors associated with use, 1995–2010. New York: Guttmacher Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Furstenberg, F. F. (1976). The social consequences of teenage parenthood. Family Planning Perspectives, 8(4), 148–164. doi:10.2307/2134201.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Furstenberg, F. F., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Morgan, S. P. (1987). Adolescent mothers in later life. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Furstenberg, F. F., Levine, J. A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1990). The children of teenage mothers: Patterns of early childbearing in two generations. Family Planning Perspectives, 22(2), 54–61. doi:10.2307/2135509.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garfinkel, I., Meyer, D. R., & McLanahan, S. S. (1998). A brief history of child support policies in the United States. In I. Garfinkel, S. S. McLanahan, D. R. Meyer, & J. A. Seltzer (Eds.), Fathers under fire: The revolution in child support enforcement (pp. 14–30). New York: Russell Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Geronimus, A., & Korenman, S. (1993). The socioeconomic costs of teenage childbearing: Evidence and interpretation. Demography, 30(2), 281–290. doi:10.2307/2061842.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gerrish, E. (2017). The effect of the child support performance and incentive act of 1998 on rewarded and unrewarded performance goals. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 36(1), 65–96. doi:10.1002/pam.21957.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Glikman, H. (2004). Low-income young fathers: Contexts, connections, and self. Social Work, 49(2), 195–206. doi:10.1093/sw/49.2.195.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goldin, C. D., & Katz, L. F. (2009). The race between education and technology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Graefe, D. R., & Lichter, D. T. (2008). Marriage patterns among unwed mothers: Before and after PRWORA. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 27(3), 479–497. doi:10.2307/30163437.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grossman, D., Baum, S., Fuentes, L., White, K., Hopkins, K., Stevenson, A., et al. (2014). Change in abortion services after implementation of a restrictive law in Texas. Contraception, 90(5), 496–501. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2014.07.006.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guzzo, K., & Furstenberg, F. (2007). Multipartnered fertility among American men. Demography, 44(3), 583–601. doi:10.1353/dem.2007.0027.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hao, L., & Cherlin, A. J. (2004). Welfare reform and teenage pregnancy, childbirth, and school dropout. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(1), 179–194. doi:10.1111/j.0022-2445.2004.00012.x-i1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hardy, J. B., Duggan, A. K., Masnyk, K., & Pearson, C. (1989). Fathers of children born to young urban mothers. Family Planning Perspectives, 21(4), 159–187. doi:10.2307/2135806.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hardy, J. B., Shapiro, S., Astone, N. M., Miller, T. L., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Hilton, S. C. (1997). Adolescent childbearing revisited: The age of inner-city mothers at delivery is a determinant of their children’s self-sufficiency at age 27 to 33. Pediatrics, 100(5), 802–809.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hernandez, D. J., & Brandon, P. D. (2002). Who are the fathers of today? In C. S. Tamis-LeMonda & N. Cabrera (Eds.), Handbook of father involvement: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 33–62). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hofferth, S. L. (2006). Residential father family type and child well-being: Investment versus selection. Demography, 43(1), 53–77. doi:10.1353/dem.2006.0006.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hofferth, S. L., & Anderson, K. G. (2003). Are all dads equal? Biology versus marriage as a basis for paternal investment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65(1), 213–232. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2003.00213.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hofferth, S. L., & Moore, K. A. (1979). Early childbearing and later economic well-being. American Sociological Review, 44(5), 784–815. doi:10.2307/2094528.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hofferth, S. L., & Reid, L. (2002). Early childbearing and children’s achievement and behavior over time. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 34(1), 41–49. doi:10.2307/3030231.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hofferth, S. L., Reid, L., & Mott, F. L. (2001). The effects of early childbearing on schooling over time. Family Planning Perspectives, 33(6), 259–267. doi:10.2307/3030193.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hoffman, S. D., Foster, E. M., & Furstenberg, F. F. (1993). Reevaluating the costs of teenage childbearing. Demography, 30(1), 1–13. doi:10.2307/2061859.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hotz, V. J., McElroy, S. W., & Sanders, S. G. (2005). Teenage childbearing and its life cycle consequences: Exploiting a natural experiment. The Journal of Human Resources, 40(3), 683–715. doi:10.2307/4129557.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang, C. C. (2010). Trends in child support from 1994 to 2004: Does child support enforcement work? Journal of Policy Practice, 9(1), 36–53. doi:10.1080/15588740903389434.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang, C. C., & Edwards, R. L. (2009). The relationship between state efforts and child support performance. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(2), 243–248.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang, C. C., & Han, K. Q. (2012). Child support enforcement in the United States: Has policy made a difference? Children and Youth Services Review, 34(4), 622–627. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.12.006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hynes, K., Joyner, K., Peters, H. E., & DeLeone, F. Y. (2008). The transition to early fatherhood: National estimates based on multiple surveys. Demographic Research, 18(12), 337–376.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Isen, A., & Stevenson, B. (2011). Women’s education and family behavior. Demography and the Economy, 107.

  • Joyce, T., Henshaw, S., Dennis, A., Finer, L., & Blanchard, K. (2009). The impact of state mandatory counseling and waiting period laws on abortion: A literature review. New York: Guttmacher Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Joyce, T., Henshaw, S., & Skatrud, J. (1997). The impact of Mississippi’s mandatory delay law on abortions and births. JAMA, 278(8), 653–658. doi:10.1001/jama.1997.03550080063040.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Joyce, T., & Kaestner, R. (2001). The impact of mandatory waiting periods and parental consent laws on the timing of abortion and state of occurrence among adolescents in Mississippi and South Carolina. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 20(2), 263–282. doi:10.2307/3325799.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Joyner, K., Peters, H. E., Hynes, K., Sikora, A., Taber, J., & Rendall, M. (2012). The quality of male fertility data in major U.S. surveys. Demography, 49(1), 101–124. doi:10.1007/s13524-011-0073-9.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaestner, R., Korenman, S., & O’Neill, J. (2003). Has welfare reform changed teenage behaviors? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 22(2), 225–248. doi:10.1002/pam.10115.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kalil, A., & Kunz, J. (1999). First births among unmarried adolescent girls: Risk and protective factors. Social Work Research, 23(3), 197–208. doi:10.1093/swr/23.3.197.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kearney, M. S., & Levine, P. B. (2015). Investigating recent trends in the U.S. teen birth rate. Journal of Health Economics, 41, 15–29. doi:10.1016/j.jhealeco.2015.01.003.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ketterlinus, R. D., Lamb, M. E., Nitz, K., & Elster, A. B. (1992). Adolescent nonsexual and sex-related problem behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7(4), 431–456. doi:10.1177/074355489274003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lamb, M. E., Elster, A. B., & Tavaré, J. (1986). Behaviorial profiles of adolescent mothers and partners with varying intracouple age differences. Journal of Adolescent Research, 1(4), 399–408. doi:10.1177/074355488614005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Landry, D. J., & Forrest, J. D. (1995). How old are U.S. fathers? Family Planning Perspectives, 27(4), 159–165. doi:10.2307/2136260.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Larson, N., Hussey, J., Gillmore, M. R., & Gilchrist, L. (1996). What about dad? Fathers of children born to school-age mothers. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 77(5), 279–289.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Levine, J. A., Pollack, H., & Comfort, M. E. (2001). Academic and behavioral outcomes among the children of young mothers. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63(2), 355–369. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00355.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lichter, D. T., & Qian, Z. (2008). Serial cohabitation and the marital life course. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(4), 861–878. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2008.00532.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lindberg, L. D., Sonenstein, F. L., Ku, L., & Martinez, G. (1997). Age differences between minors who give birth and their adult partners. Family Planning Perspectives, 29(2), 61–66. doi:10.2307/2953363.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lopoo, L. M., & DeLeire, T. (2006). Did welfare reform influence the fertility of young teens? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 25(2), 275–298. doi:10.1002/pam.20173.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Males, M., & Chew, K. S. V. (1996). The ages of fathers in California adolescent births, 1993. American Journal of Public Health, 86(4), 565–568.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Manlove, J. (1997). Early motherhood in an intergenerational perspective: The experiences of a British cohort. Journal of Marriage and Family, 59(2), 263–279. doi:10.2307/353469.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Manlove, J., Steward-Streng, N., Peterson, K., Scott, M., & Wildsmith, E. (2013). Racial and ethnic differences in the transition to a teenage birth in the United States. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 45(2), 89–100. doi:10.1363/4508913.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Manlove, J., Terry-Humen, E., & Ikramullah, E. (2006). Young teenagers and older sexual partners: Correlates and consequences for males and females. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 38(4), 197–207. doi:10.1363/3819706.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Manning, W. D., Brown, S. L., & Payne, K. K. (2014). Two decades of stability and change in age at first union formation. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76(2), 247–260. doi:10.1111/jomf.12090.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Manning, W. D., & Cohen, J. A. (2015). Teenage cohabitation, marriage, and childbearing. Population Research and Policy Review, 34(2), 161–177. doi:10.1007/s11113-014-9341-x.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marsiglio, W. (1988). Commitment to social fatherhood: Predicting adolescent males’ intentions to live with their child and partner. Journal of Marriage and Family, 50(2), 427–441. doi:10.2307/352008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marsiglio, W. (1994). Young nonresident biological fathers. Marriage & Family Review, 20(3–4), 325–348. doi:10.1300/J002v20n03_02.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marsiglio, W., Amato, P., Day, R. D., & Lamb, M. E. (2000). Scholarship on fatherhood in the 1990s and beyond. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62(4), 1173–1191. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.01173.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martinez, G., Copen, C. E., & Abma, J. C. (2011). Teenagers in the United States: sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing, 2006–2010 national survey of family growth. Vital and Health Statistics Series 23. Data from the National Survey of Family Growth, 31, 1–35.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martinez, G., Daniels, K., & Chandra, A. (2012). Fertility of men and women aged 15–44 years in the United States: National Survey of Family Growth, 2006–2010. National Health Statistics Reports, 51, 1.

    Google Scholar 

  • McDermott, E., & Graham, H. (2005). Resilient young mothering: Social inequalities, late modernity and the ‘Problem’ of ‘Teenage’ motherhood. Journal of Youth Studies, 8(1), 59–79. doi:10.1080/13676260500063702.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Medoff, M. H. (2007). Price, restrictions and abortion demand. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 28(4), 583–599. doi:10.1007/s10834-007-9080-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meier, K. J., Haider-Markel, D. P., Stanislawski, A. J., & McFarlane, D. R. (1996). The impact of state-level restrictions on abortion. Demography, 33(3), 307–312. doi:10.2307/2061763.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, B. C., & Moore, K. A. (1990). Adolescent sexual behavior, pregnancy, and parenting: research through the 1980s. Journal of Marriage and Family, 52(4), 1025–1044. doi:10.2307/353317.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, C., & Garfinkel, I. (1999). The determinants of paternity establishment and child support award rates among unmarried women. Population Research and Policy Review, 18(3), 237–260. doi:10.1023/a:1006137601213.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moore, K. A., Nord, C. W., & Peterson, J. L. (1989). Nonvoluntary sexual activity among adolescents. Family Planning Perspectives, 21(3), 110–114. doi:10.2307/2135660.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Musick, K. (2002). Planned and unplanned childbearing among unmarried women. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(4), 915–929. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00915.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Musick, K., Brand, J. E., & Davis, D. (2012). Variation in the relationship between education and marriage: Marriage market mismatch? Journal of Marriage and Family, 74(1), 53–69. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2011.00879.x.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nayak, A., & Kehily, M. J. (2014). ‘Chavs, chavettes and pramface girls’: Teenage mothers, marginalised young men and the management of stigma. Journal of Youth Studies, 17(10), 1330–1345. doi:10.1080/13676261.2014.920489.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nepomnyaschy, L., & Garfinkel, I. (2010). Child support enforcement and fathers’ contributions to their nonmarital children. Social Service Review, 84(3), 341–380. doi:10.1086/655392.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Office of Child Support Enforcement (1995). FY1995 annual report to congress. Office of Child Support Enforcement, Administration for Children, Families, U.S. Department of Health, and Human Service.

  • Pirog, M. A., & Gerrish, E. (2015). Impact of the child support performance and incentive act on child support order establishment. Children and Youth Services Review, 58, 104–117. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2015.09.006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pirog, M. A., & Ziol-Guest, K. M. (2006). Child support enforcement: Programs and policies, impacts and questions. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 25(4), 943–990. doi:10.1002/pam.20215.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pirog-Good, M. A. (1988). Teenage paternity, child support, and crime. Social Science Quarterly, 69(3), 527–546.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pirog-Good, M. A. (1995). The family background and attitudes of teen fathers. Youth & Society, 26(3), 351–376. doi:10.1177/0044118x95026003004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pirog-Good, M. A. (1996). The education and labor market outcomes of adolescent fathers. Youth & Society, 28(2), 236–262. doi:10.1177/0044118x96028002005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pirog-Good, M. A., & Good, D. H. (1995). Child support enforcement for teenage fathers: Problems and prospects. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 14(1), 25–42. doi:10.2307/3325431.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Plotnick, R. D., Garfinkel, I., McLanahan, S. S., & Ku, I. (2007). The impact of child support enforcement policy on nonmarital childbearing. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 26(1), 79–98. doi:10.1002/pam.20228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Robbins, C., Kaplan, H. B., & Martin, S. S. (1985). Antecedents of pregnancy among unmarried adolescents. Journal of Marriage and Family, 47(3), 567–583. doi:10.2307/352259.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rozie-Battle, J. (2003). Economic support and the dilemma of teen fathers. Journal of Health & Social Policy, 17(1), 73–86.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Santelli, J. S., & Melnikas, A. J. (2010). Teen fertility in transition: recent and historic trends in the United States. Annual Review of Public Health, 31, 371–383.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schoen, R., Landale, N., & Daniels, K. (2007). Family transitions in young adulthood. Demography, 44(4), 807–820. doi:10.1353/dem.2007.0044.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seltzer, J. A. (2000). Families formed outside of marriage. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62(4), 1247–1268. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.01247.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, H. L., Morgan, S. P., & Koropeckyj-Cox, T. (1996). A decomposition of trends in the nonmarital fertility ratios of blacks and whites in the United States, 1960-1992. Demography, 33(2), 141–151. doi:10.2307/2061868.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • SmithBattle, L. (2007). “I Wanna Have a Good Future”: Teen mothers’ rise in educational aspirations, competing demands, and limited school support. Youth & Society, 38(3), 348–371. doi:10.1177/0044118x06287962.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smock, P. J., & Greenland, F. R. (2010). Diversity in pathways to parenthood: Patterns, implications, and emerging research directions. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3), 576–593. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00719.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Solomon-Fears, C. (2013). Child support enforcement program incentive payments: Background and policy issues. Washington: Congressional Research Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sorensen, E. (1997). A national profile of nonresident fathers and their ability to pay child support. Journal of Marriage and Family, 59(4), 785–797. doi:10.2307/353782.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sorensen, E., & Hill, A. (2004). Single mothers and their child-support receipt: How well is child-support enforcement doing? Journal of Human Resources, 39(1), 135–154. doi:10.3368/jhr.XXXIX.1.135.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Wei, E. H. (1998). The precursors of young fatherhood and its effect on delinquency of teenage males. Journal of Adolescent Health, 22(1), 56–65. doi:10.1016/s1054-139x(97)00211-5.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stykes, J. B., Manning, W. D., & Brown, S. L. (2013). Nonresident fathers and formal child support: Evidence from the CPS, the NSFG, and the SIPP. Demographic Research, 29, 1299–1330. doi:10.1007/s10834-009-9172-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Su, J., Dunifon, R., & Sassler, S. (2015). Better for baby? The retreat from mid-pregnancy marriage and implications for parenting and child well-being. Demography, 52(4), 1167–1194. doi:10.1007/s13524-015-0410-5.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, D. J., Chavez, G. F., Adams, E. J., Chabra, A., & Shah, R. S. (1999). Demographic characteristics in adult paternity for first births to adolescents under 15 years of age. Journal of Adolescent Health, 24(4), 251–258. doi:10.1016/S1054-139X(98)00122-0.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Teachman, J. (2003). Childhood living arrangements and the formation of coresidential unions. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65(3), 507–524. doi:10.2307/3600019.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Teti, D. M., & Lamb, M. E. (1989). Socioeconomic and marital outcomes of adolescent marriage, adolescent childbirth, and their co-occurrence. Journal of Marriage and Family, 51(1), 203–212. doi:10.2307/352381.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thornberry, T. P., Smith, C. A., & Howard, G. J. (1997). Risk factors for teenage fatherhood. Journal of Marriage and Family, 59(3), 505–522. doi:10.2307/353942.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thrane, L. E., & Chen, X. (2012). Impact of running away on girls’ pregnancy. Journal of Adolescence, 35(2), 443–449. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.07.011.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Upchurch, D. M., & McCarthy, J. (1990). The timing of a first birth and high school completion. American Sociological Review, 55(2), 224–234.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ventura, S. J., & Bachrach, C. A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, 1940–99. National vital statistics reports, 48(16), 1–40.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vinnerljung, B., Franzén, E., & Danielsson, M. (2007). Teenage parenthood among child welfare clients: A Swedish national cohort study of prevalence and odds. Journal of Adolescence, 30(1), 97–116. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2005.12.002.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Waite, L. J., & Moore, K. A. (1978). The impact of an early first birth on young women’s educational attainment. Social Forces, 56(3), 845–865. doi:10.2307/2577222.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilkinson, D. L., Magora, A., Garcia, M., & Khurana, A. (2009). Fathering at the margins of society. Journal of Family Issues, 30(7), 945–967. doi:10.1177/0192513x09332354.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wu, L. L. (2008). Cohort estimates of nonmarital fertility for U.S. women. Demography, 45(1), 193–207. doi:10.1353/dem.2008.0001.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wu, L. L., & Martinson, B. C. (1993). Family structure and the risk of a premarital birth. American Sociological Review, 58(2), 210–232.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yardley, E. (2008). Teenage mothers’ experiences of stigma. Journal of Youth Studies, 11(6), 671–684. doi:10.1080/136762608023.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Daewoo Lee.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Appendix

Appendix

See Table 5.

Table 5 Cumulative rate of early parenthood by age

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pirog, M.A., Jung, H. & Lee, D. The Changing Face of Teenage Parenthood in the United States: Evidence from NLSY79 and NLSY97. Child Youth Care Forum 47, 317–342 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-017-9417-y

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-017-9417-y

Keywords

  • Pregnancy
  • Teenage
  • Poverty/disadvantage
  • Marriage/cohabitation
  • Families
  • Educational achievement
  • Earnings