Child Care Provider Awareness and Prevention of Cytomegalovirus and Other Infectious Diseases
Child care facilities are prime locations for the transmission of infectious and communicable diseases. Children and child care providers are at high risk for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection which causes severe birth defects and developmental delays.
The goals of study were: (1) to determine the level of cytomegalovirus awareness and other infectious diseases among child care providers, and (2) to determine what measures providers are taking to prevent the spread of infectious disease.
This is a descriptive study. We used the Dillman total design method to survey a random sample of licensed family and residential child care providers. We used a 29-item questionnaire to ask about awareness of cytomegalovirus and other infectious diseases, knowledge of how to control spread of these diseases, sources of information, personal hand hygiene behaviors, and demographics. The response rate was 68.6 %.
Awareness of infectious diseases ranged from 12.8 to 99.4 %; 18.5 % ‘had’ heard of CMV. Respondent’s primary sources of information were health care providers and the Internet. Self-report of hand hygiene behavior was high. Providers do not know how to appropriately sanitize surfaces to reduce spread of disease.
Awareness of CMV and how to prevent transmission of infectious disease is low. Intervening with child care providers and parents through child care facilities are key opportunities to reduce prevalence of CMV infection and other diseases.
KeywordsDaycare Childcare Cytomegalovirus Hearing loss Infections
The authors thank Michael Cannon and Ralph Cordell for their assistance with the study.
- Administration for Children and Families. Office of Child Care. (2014). FY 2012 final data table 6—Average monthly percentages of children served in all types of care. http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/occ/resource/fy-2012-ccdf-data-tables-final-table-6
- Anderson, B., Schulkin, J., Ross, D. S., Rasmussen, S. A., Jones, J. L., & Cannon, M. J. (2008). Knowledge and practices of obstetricians and gynecologists regarding cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy. Journal of the Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare, 28(3), 22–27.Google Scholar
- Cannon, M. J., Stowell, J. D., Clark, R., Dollard, P. R., Johnson, D., Mask, K., & Dollard, S. C. (2014b). Repeated measures study of weekly and daily cytomegalovirus shedding patterns in saliva and urine of healthy cytomegalovirus-seropositive children. BMC Infectious Disease, 13, 569. doi: 10.1186/s12879-014-0569-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006). Errata: Vol 53, no 3. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 55(32), 881.Google Scholar
- Finch, M., Wolfenden, L., Falkiner, M., Edenden, D., Pond, N., Hardy, L. L., & Wiggers, J. (2012). Impact of a population based intervention to increase the adoption of multiple physical activity practices in centre based childcare services: A quasi experimental, effectiveness study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(1), 101. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-101.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fox, S. (2011). The social life of health information, 2011. Pew Internet and American Life Project. http://pewinternet.org/reports/2011/social-life-of-health-info.aspx
- Joseph, S. A., Beliveau, C., Muecke, C. J., Rahme, E., Soto, J. C., Flowerdew, G., & Gyorkos, T. W. (2006). Cytomegalovirus as an occupational risk in daycare educators. Paediatrics & Child Health, 11(7), 401–407.Google Scholar
- Laughlin, L. (2013). Who’s minding the kids? Child care arrangements: Spring 2011. (No. Current Population Reports, P70–135). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census.Google Scholar
- Mehtälä, M. A. K., Sääkslahti, A. K., Inkinen, M. E., & Poskiparta, M. E. H. (2014). A socio-ecological approach to physical activity interventions in childcare: A systematic review. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11(1), 22. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-11-22.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mistry, K. B., Minkovitz, C. S., Riley, A. W., Johnson, S. B., Grason, H. A., Dubay, L. C., & Guyer, B. (2012). A new framework for childhood health promotion: The role of policies and programs in building capacity and foundations of early childhood health. American Journal of Public Health, 102(9), 1688–1696.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education. (2011). Chapter 3: Health promotion and protection. Caring for our children. National health and safety performance standards. Guidelines for early care and education programs (3rd ed.). http://cfoc.nrckids.org/
- Pass, R. F. (2011). The social ecology of infectious disease transmission in day-care centers. In K. H. Mayer & H. F. Pizer (Eds.), The social ecology of infectious diseases (pp. 171–186). London: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Pereboom, M. T., Mannien, J., Spelten, E. R., Schellevis, F. G., & Hutton, E. K. (2013). Observational study to assess pregnant women’s knowledge and behaviour to prevent toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and cytomegalovirus. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 13, 98. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-13-98.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Price, S. M., Bonilla, E., Zador, P., Levis, D. M., Kilgo, C. L., & Cannon, M. J. (2014). Educating women about congenital cytomegalovirus: Assessment of health education materials through a web-based survey. BMC Women’s Health, 14(1), 144. doi: 10.1186/s12905-014-0144-3.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stowell, J. D., Forlin-Passoni, D., Din, E., Radford, K., Brown, D., White, A., & Schmid, D. S. (2012). Cytomegalovirus survival on common environmental surfaces: Opportunities for viral transmission. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 205, 211–214. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jir722.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stowell, J. D., Forlin-Passoni, D., Radford, K., Bate, S., Dollard, S., Bialek, S. R., & Schmid, D. (2014). Cytomegalovirus survival and transferability and the effectiveness of common hand-washing agents against cytomegalovirus on live human hands. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 80(2), 455–461.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tucker, P., van Zandvoort, M. M., Burke, S. M., & Irwin, J. D. (2011). The influence of parents and the home environment on preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours: A qualitative investigation of childcare providers’ perspectives. BMC Public Health, 11, 168-2458-11-168. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-168.
- Zhou, Y. E., Emerson, J. S., Levine, R. S., Kihlberg, C. J., & Hull, P. C. (2014). Childhood obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings: Systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials. American Journal of Health Promotion, 28(4), e92–e103. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.121129-LIT-579.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar