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Role of Cobalt Oxide-Based Catalysts for Styrene Production: A Review on Significance of Various Promoters, Calcination Temperature, Chemical Behavior of Support Materials and Synthesis Procedure

  • Venkata Rao Madduluri
  • Kamaraju Seetha Rama RaoEmail author
Article
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Abstract

The direct CO2 oxidative dehydrogenation of ethyl benzene (ODH-EB) is a great potential for the production of valuable styrene monomer. In contrast, past/present styrene (ST) synthesis is mainly obtained from oxidative dehydrogenation of ethyl benzene (EB) and being transformed into pilot scale under CO2 atmosphere. It was due to few unresolved restrictions existed in the synthesis of styrene monomer using the steam assisted process and commercial ST production technology. These problems are being rectified by ODH-EB process using CO2 as a soft oxidant. Therefore, ODH of EB is well-known high temperature process to convert the EB (petroleum by product) into valuable ST monomer through the utilizing of CO2. Present study clearly explains the concise history of dehydrogenation process used to convert EB to ST monomer, which is essential feedstock in the wide range of industrial commodities production. In this discussion we majorly devoted to design, development and synthesis of different Co based catalysts by applying different support materials such as SiO2, MgO, MgAl2O4 and γ-Al2O3 respectively. Moreover, this study extensively deals with chemical behavior of oxidants, utilization of viable active promoters and its characteristics features in the oxidative dehydrogenation process. Different reaction mechanisms in the ODH of EB process to describe CO2 utilization as well as surface styrene monomer formation and evaluation of other by products were discussed widely in this review paper. The surface acidic and basic chemistry of various support materials, its preparation, utilization and its catalytic activity applications have been discussed. Acidic–basic textural properties of different solid oxide support materials have been extensively illustrated through incorporation of variety active metallic oxide and promoters. The catalyst activity evaluation in ODH of EB process as well as plausible reaction mechanism of styrene monomer formation has been explained.

Graphic Abstract

Keywords

Oxidative dehydrogenation Ethyl benzene Styrene Soft oxidant CO2 

Abbreviations

ODH

Oxidative dehydrogenation

EB

Ethyl benzene

ST

Styrene

TOL

Toluene

BZ

Benzene

RWGSR

Reverse water gas shift reaction

Dehydrogenation oxidants

N2, He and Ar

Soft oxidants

CO2, O2, N2O and SO2

Steam

Water vapor

CA

Co3O4/γ-Al2O3

CMA

Co3O4/MgAl2O4

LA

La3O3/γ-Al2O3

LCA

La3O3/Co3O4/Al2O3

MA

MgAl2O4

CM

Co3O4/MgO

CS

Co3O4/SiO2

COK

12-Centrum voor Oppervlaktechemie & Katalyse

XMA

X denotes the calcination temperature of MgAl2O4 spinel like 600MA, 700MA, 800MA and 900MA respectively

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author, MVR is grateful to the University Grants Commission and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India respectively for the award of fellowship and the services provided by the Analytical Division; CSIR-IICT is greatly acknowledged.

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Venkata Rao Madduluri
    • 1
  • Kamaraju Seetha Rama Rao
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Catalysis & Fine Chemicals DivisionCSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical TechnologyHyderabadIndia

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