Catalysis Letters

, Volume 149, Issue 3, pp 672–687 | Cite as

Efficient Dehydration of Glucose, Sucrose, and Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Using Tri-cationic Ionic Liquids

  • Pramod V. Rathod
  • Rajendra B. Mujmule
  • Wook-Jin Chung
  • Amol R. Jadhav
  • Hern KimEmail author


Imidazolium predicated room temperature tri-cationic ionic liquid (RTILs) shows highly efficient and selective dehydration of fructose, sucrose, and glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). The formation of 5-HMF has been investigated using different reaction parameters, such as catalyst weight, reaction time and temperature. Among different reaction parameters, 93% yield of 5-HMF was obtained from fructose in [GLY(mim)3][OMs]3 at 120 °C within 2 h, while 72% and 51% yield of 5-HMF were achieved from dehydration of sucrose, and glucose respectively at 120–140 °C in 3 h to 5 h. In addition, the effect of reaction time, molar ratio, and temperature with CC-SO3H co-catalyst have been discussed. In which, 97%, 77%, and 58% yield of 5-HMF were obtained from fructose, sucrose, and glucose, respectively, in the presence of [GLY(mim)3][Cl]3 and CC-SO3H catalyst at 130–140 °C within 3–5 h. Both catalytic systems showed excellent recyclability for carbohydrates to 5- HMF conversion without any loss in its catalytic activity.

Graphical Abstract


Biomass Ionic liquid 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural 



This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2018R1D1A1B07048146) and by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP)—Grants funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE) (No. 20174010201160).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

10562_2019_2667_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 2018 KB)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Energy Science and Technology, Smart Living Innovation Technology CenterMyongji UniversityYonginRepublic of Korea

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