Catalysis Letters

, Volume 148, Issue 9, pp 2856–2868 | Cite as

Vanillin Hydrodeoxygenation: Kinetic Modelling and Solvent Effect

  • Alexandrina Sulman
  • Päivi Mäki-Arvela
  • Louis Bomont
  • Vyacheslav Fedorov
  • Moldir Alda-Onggar
  • Annika Smeds
  • Jarl Hemming
  • Vincenzo Russo
  • Johan Wärnå
  • Mats Käldström
  • Dmitry Yu. MurzinEmail author


Vanillin hydrodeoxygenation was investigated using Pt/C catalyst in the temperature and total pressure ranges of 80–200 °C and 20–30 bar in several solvents, such as tetrahydrofuran, 2-propanol, water and in solventless conditions using 1:1 mass ratio of vanillin to guaiacol. The results revealed that the rate increased with increasing solvent polarity as follows: tetrahydrofuran < 2-propanol < water. The main product was p-creosol with 66% selectivity at complete vanillin conversion in HDO under 30 bar total pressure at 100 °C after 4 h using water as a solvent. In a solventless experiment with 1:1 mass ratio of vanillin–guaiacol as a feedstock only vanillin was transformed to p-creosol with 91% conversion in 4 h at 200 °C under 30 bar total pressure, while guaiacol did not produce any HDO products. Both thermodynamic analysis and kinetic modelling were performed. Vanillin hydrodeoxygenation resulted in formation of p-creosol over Pt/C catalyst using an optimum vanillin initial concentration in water solution. From the industrial point of view vanillin hydrodeoxygenation proceeded rapidly giving high yields of p-creosol in solventless hydrodeoxygenation of vanillin-guaiacol mixture, while guaiacol was not deoxygenated.

Graphical Abstract


Hydrodeoxygenation Vanillin Kinetic modelling 


List of Symbols


Rate constant


Equilibrium constant at standard conditions for reaction j


Adsorption equilibrium constant


Moles (mol)


Pressure (bar)


Standard pressure (bar)


Reaction rate


Coefficient of determination


Ideal gas constant (J/K/mol)


Absolute temperature (K)


Absolute standard temperature (K)



Greak Symbols


Gibbs free energy of formation at standard conditions (J/mol)


Gibbs free energy of reaction at standard conditions (J/mol)


Gibbs free energy of reaction at 1 bar and chosen temperature (J/mol)


Gibbs free energy of reaction at a fixed temperature and pressure (J/mol)


Enthalpy of formation at standard conditions (J/mol)


Enthalpy of reaction at standard conditions (J/mol)


Catalyst bulk density


Objective function


Stoichiometric matrix composed by i components and j reactions (–)

Supplementary material

10562_2018_2478_MOESM1_ESM.docx (29 kb)
Supplementary Table S1 (DOCX 28 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandrina Sulman
    • 1
  • Päivi Mäki-Arvela
    • 1
  • Louis Bomont
    • 1
  • Vyacheslav Fedorov
    • 1
  • Moldir Alda-Onggar
    • 1
  • Annika Smeds
    • 1
  • Jarl Hemming
    • 1
  • Vincenzo Russo
    • 2
  • Johan Wärnå
    • 1
  • Mats Käldström
    • 3
  • Dmitry Yu. Murzin
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry CentreÅbo Akademi UniversityTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Università di Napoli Federico IINaplesItaly
  3. 3.Neste CorporationPorvooFinland

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