Catalysis Letters

, Volume 148, Issue 5, pp 1345–1354 | Cite as

Palladium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex of Vitamin B1 Supported on Silica-Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles: A Green and Efficient Catalyst for C–C Coupling

  • Fatemeh Rafiee
  • Nasrin Mehdizadeh


Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by hydrolysis of TEOS in the presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles that were synthesized through co-precipitation procedure. Then, thiamine hydrochloride (VB1) was covalently connected with silica to provide a biodegradable, nontoxic and inexpensive NHC ligand for the formation of complex with palladium. This magnetic bionanocatalyst was characterized using FT-IR, XPS, FE-SEM, TEM, EDX, XRD, VSM, TGA and ICP-AES analysis. The Fe3O4@SiO2@VB1-Pd was found as a magnetically separable and highly active catalyst for the Suzuki coupling reactions of various aryl halides with substituted phenylboronic acids. Under appropriate conditions, all reactions afforded the desired products in excellent yields at short reaction times. Moreover, this catalyst can be easily recovered by using a magnetic field and directly reused for five times in this cross coupling with good yield and suitable time.

Graphical Abstract


Palladium catalyzed N-Heterocyclic carbene Magnetic nanoparticle support Cross-coupling reactions 



We gratefully acknowledge the partial financial support received from the research council of Alzahra University.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physic-ChemistryAlzahra UniversityTehranIran

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