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Catalysis Letters

, Volume 147, Issue 4, pp 900–918 | Cite as

Magnetic Nanoparticle-Supported N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Palladium(II): A Convenient, Efficient and Recyclable Catalyst for Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reactions

  • K. Vishal
  • Bradley D. Fahlman
  • B. S. Sasidhar
  • Shivaputra A. Patil
  • Siddappa A. Patil
Article

Abstract

A new magnetic nanoparticle-supported N-heterocyclic carbene-palladium(II) nanomagnetic catalyst was synthesized and appropriately characterized using attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–Visible), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis (BET). The nanomagnetic catalyst was used as convenient and efficient catalyst for the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction of various aryl bromides/chlorides/iodide with phenylboronic acid. The effects of varying solvents, bases, temperature, time and catalytic ratios on the performance of the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction were investigated. The notable advantages of this heterogeneous nanomagnetic catalyst are excellent yields, mild reaction conditions, short reaction times and easy work-up. Moreover, the new nanomagnetic catalyst could be easily recovered with an external magnet and could be reused at least five times without loss of its catalytic activity.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Magnetic nanoparticles N-heterocyclic carbene-palladium(II) Nanomagnetic catalyst Synthesis and Characterization Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank DST-Nanomission, India (SR/NM/NS-20/2014), DST-SERB, India (SERB/F/7013/2015-16) and Jain University, India for financial support.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Vishal
    • 1
  • Bradley D. Fahlman
    • 2
  • B. S. Sasidhar
    • 3
  • Shivaputra A. Patil
    • 4
  • Siddappa A. Patil
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain Global CampusJain UniversityBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry & Science of Advanced MaterialsCentral Michigan UniversityMount PleasantUSA
  3. 3.Organic Chemistry SectionNational Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR)TrivandrumIndia
  4. 4.Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, College of PharmacyRosalind Franklin University of Medicine and ScienceNorth ChicagoUSA

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