Cutting Cost Technology for the Preparation of Biodiesel Using Environmentally Benign and Cheaper Catalyst

Abstract

Herein, a promising egg shell derived catalyst (ESDC) was prosperously developed by calcination of egg shell powder and exercised to the transesterification of Helianthus annuus L oil for the synthesis of biodiesel fuel. Synthesized egg shell derived catalyst affirmed remarkable catalytic activity for transesterification of Helianthus annuus L oil with 2.5 % catalyst dose (w/w). ESDC was duly characterized by FT-IR, XRD, BET, TPD-CO2, TGA and SEM analysis. While, Helianthus annuus L oil and biodiesel were duly characterized by FT-IR as well as 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that 1:8 oil to methanol molar ratio revealed 99.2 % biodiesel yield in 2 h reaction time with 2.5 % catalyst dosage at 65 °C reaction temperature.

Graphical Abstract

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Abbreviations

ESDC:

Egg shell derived catalyst

XRD:

X-ray diffraction

TGA:

Thermogravimetric analysis

SEM:

Scanning electron microscope

TPD-CO2 :

Temperature programmed desorption

TMS:

Tetra methyl silane

HPLC:

High performance liquid chromatography

GC-FID:

Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector

FAMEs:

Fatty acid methyl esters

NMR:

Nuclear magnetic resonance

BET:

Brunauer–Emmett–Teller

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Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge the financial furtherance from NIT, Surat and CSIR, New Delhi, India (Sanction Order Letter No. 02(0170)/13/EMR-II). For analytical services, we wish to thank, Mr. Sagar, MED, NIT, Surat, A. Narayanan, IIT, Madras, The Director, SDPARC, Kim, Surat, and Prof. Anamik Shah, COE, NFDD Center, Saurastra University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India.

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Correspondence to Bharatkumar Z. Dholakiya.

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Savaliya, M.L., Bhakhar, M.S. & Dholakiya, B.Z. Cutting Cost Technology for the Preparation of Biodiesel Using Environmentally Benign and Cheaper Catalyst. Catal Lett 146, 2313–2323 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10562-016-1861-z

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Keywords

  • Egg shell waste
  • Helianthus annuus L oil
  • Solid alkali catalyst
  • Surface morphology
  • Crystallographic planes
  • Thermal degradation