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Catalysis Letters

, Volume 146, Issue 11, pp 2313–2323 | Cite as

Cutting Cost Technology for the Preparation of Biodiesel Using Environmentally Benign and Cheaper Catalyst

  • Mehulkumar L. Savaliya
  • Mathurkumar S. Bhakhar
  • Bharatkumar Z. DholakiyaEmail author
Article

Abstract

Herein, a promising egg shell derived catalyst (ESDC) was prosperously developed by calcination of egg shell powder and exercised to the transesterification of Helianthus annuus L oil for the synthesis of biodiesel fuel. Synthesized egg shell derived catalyst affirmed remarkable catalytic activity for transesterification of Helianthus annuus L oil with 2.5 % catalyst dose (w/w). ESDC was duly characterized by FT-IR, XRD, BET, TPD-CO2, TGA and SEM analysis. While, Helianthus annuus L oil and biodiesel were duly characterized by FT-IR as well as 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that 1:8 oil to methanol molar ratio revealed 99.2 % biodiesel yield in 2 h reaction time with 2.5 % catalyst dosage at 65 °C reaction temperature.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Egg shell waste Helianthus annuus L oil Solid alkali catalyst Surface morphology Crystallographic planes Thermal degradation 

Abbreviations

ESDC

Egg shell derived catalyst

XRD

X-ray diffraction

TGA

Thermogravimetric analysis

SEM

Scanning electron microscope

TPD-CO2

Temperature programmed desorption

TMS

Tetra methyl silane

HPLC

High performance liquid chromatography

GC-FID

Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector

FAMEs

Fatty acid methyl esters

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

BET

Brunauer–Emmett–Teller

Notes

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge the financial furtherance from NIT, Surat and CSIR, New Delhi, India (Sanction Order Letter No. 02(0170)/13/EMR-II). For analytical services, we wish to thank, Mr. Sagar, MED, NIT, Surat, A. Narayanan, IIT, Madras, The Director, SDPARC, Kim, Surat, and Prof. Anamik Shah, COE, NFDD Center, Saurastra University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India.

Supplementary material

10562_2016_1861_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1039 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehulkumar L. Savaliya
    • 1
  • Mathurkumar S. Bhakhar
    • 2
  • Bharatkumar Z. Dholakiya
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Applied ChemistrySardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology (SVNIT)SuratIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringG.H Patel College of Engineering and TechnologyAnandIndia

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