Cutting Cost Technology for the Preparation of Biodiesel Using Environmentally Benign and Cheaper Catalyst
Herein, a promising egg shell derived catalyst (ESDC) was prosperously developed by calcination of egg shell powder and exercised to the transesterification of Helianthus annuus L oil for the synthesis of biodiesel fuel. Synthesized egg shell derived catalyst affirmed remarkable catalytic activity for transesterification of Helianthus annuus L oil with 2.5 % catalyst dose (w/w). ESDC was duly characterized by FT-IR, XRD, BET, TPD-CO2, TGA and SEM analysis. While, Helianthus annuus L oil and biodiesel were duly characterized by FT-IR as well as 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that 1:8 oil to methanol molar ratio revealed 99.2 % biodiesel yield in 2 h reaction time with 2.5 % catalyst dosage at 65 °C reaction temperature.
KeywordsEgg shell waste Helianthus annuus L oil Solid alkali catalyst Surface morphology Crystallographic planes Thermal degradation
Egg shell derived catalyst
Scanning electron microscope
Temperature programmed desorption
Tetra methyl silane
High performance liquid chromatography
Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector
Fatty acid methyl esters
Nuclear magnetic resonance
We gratefully acknowledge the financial furtherance from NIT, Surat and CSIR, New Delhi, India (Sanction Order Letter No. 02(0170)/13/EMR-II). For analytical services, we wish to thank, Mr. Sagar, MED, NIT, Surat, A. Narayanan, IIT, Madras, The Director, SDPARC, Kim, Surat, and Prof. Anamik Shah, COE, NFDD Center, Saurastra University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India.