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XRD and ATR-FTIR techniques for integrity assessment of gamma radiation sterilized cortical bone pretreated by antioxidants

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Terminal sterilization of bone allograft by gamma radiation is required to reduce the risk of infection. Free radical scavengers could be utilized to minimize the deteriorating effects of gamma radiation on bone allograft mechanical properties. The objective of this research is to assess the changes in structural and chemical composition induced by hydroxytyrosol (HT) and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) free radical scavengers in gamma sterilized cortical bone. Bovine femurs specimens were soaked in different concentrations of HT and ALA for 7 and 3 days respectively before irradiation with 35 KGy gamma radiation. The attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the X-ray diffraction techniques were utilized to analyze the changes in chemical composition induced by irradiation in the presence of free radical scavengers. A significant increase in the proportion of amide I and amide II to phosphate was noticed in the irradiated group, while in the pretreated groups with ALA and HT this effect was minimized. In addition, gamma radiation reduced the mature to immature cross links while ALA and HT alleviated this reduction. No significant changes were noticed in the mineral crystallinity or crystal size. Bone chemical structure has been changed due to gamma irradiation and these changes are mainly relevant to amide I, amide II proportions and collagen crosslinks. The deteriorating effects of gamma sterilization dose (35 kGy) on chemical structure of bone allograft can be alleviated by using (HT) and (ALA) free radical scavengers before irradiation.

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This manuscript has been resulted from a Ph.D. research project carried out by the 1st author under the supervision of the other authors as the project supervisors at Radiation Physics and Microbiology Departments in Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) and at Biophysics Group in Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University in Cairo.


This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

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Correspondence to Naglaa S. El-Hansi.

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El-Hansi, N.S., Said, H.H., Desouky, O.S. et al. XRD and ATR-FTIR techniques for integrity assessment of gamma radiation sterilized cortical bone pretreated by antioxidants. Cell Tissue Bank 22, 305–321 (2021).

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