Cell and Tissue Banking

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 643–651 | Cite as

Effect of gamma radiation on the expression of mRNA growth factors in glycerol cryopreserved human amniotic membrane

  • Rusidah Mat Yatim
  • Thirumulu Ponnuraj KannanEmail author
  • Suzina Sheikh Ab Hamid


Human amniotic membrane (HAM) due to its high biocompatibility, low immunogenicity, anti-microbial, anti-viral properties as well as the presence of growth factors has been used in various clinical applications. The growth factors play an important role in wound healing. The current study aimed to explore the effect of 15 kGy gamma radiation dose on selected growth factors and receptors mRNA present in HAM. Eight growth factors, namely, EGF, HGF, KGF, TGF-α, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3 and bFGF and two growth factor receptors, HGFR and KGFR were evaluated in this study. The total RNA was extracted and converted to complimentary DNA using commercial kits. Subsequently, the mRNA expressions of these growth factors were evaluated using real-time PCR and the results were statistically analyzed using REST-MCS software. This study confirmed the presence of these mRNA growth factors and receptors in fresh, glycerol cryopreserved and irradiated glycerol cryopreserved HAM. In glycerol cryopreserved HAM, the results showed up-regulation of HGF and bFGF and down-regulation of EGF, HGFR, KGF, KGFR, TGF-α, TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 relative to the fresh HAM which acted as the control, whereas in irradiated glycerol cryopreserved HAM, the results showed up-regulation of EGF, HGF, KGF, KGFR, TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 and down-regulation of HGFR, TGF-α and bFGF relative to the glycerol cryopreserved HAM which acted as the control. However, these mRNA expressions did not show any statistical significant difference compared to the control groups. This study concluded that a dose of 15 kGy of gamma radiation did not affect the mRNA expression for the growth factors’ and receptors’ in the glycerol cryopreserved HAM.


Human amniotic membrane Growth factors Gamma radiation Glycerol cryopreservation Gene expression 



The authors acknowledge the staff of USM Tissue Bank, Human Genome Centre and Department of Haematology of School of Medical Sciences and Laboratory of Forensic Science of School of Health Sciences for the technical support and USM Short Term Grant (304/PPSP/61311051), Malaysian Technology Development Corporation (MTDC Grant 304/PPSP/6150093.M130) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Research Contract No: 16099/RO) for the financial support to conduct this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10561_2016_9576_MOESM1_ESM.doc (36 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 35 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rusidah Mat Yatim
    • 1
  • Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Suzina Sheikh Ab Hamid
    • 1
  1. 1.Tissue Bank, School of Medical SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaKubang KerianMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Dental SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaKubang KerianMalaysia
  3. 3.Human Genome Centre, School of Medical SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaKubang KerianMalaysia

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