Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical properties of human cortical bone: influence of different processing methods

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Cell and Tissue Banking Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The secondary sterilisation by irradiation reduces the risk of infectious disease transmission with tissue allografts. Achieving sterility of bone tissue grafts compromises its biomechanical properties. There are several factors, including dose and temperature of irradiation, as well as processing conditions, that may influence mechanical properties of a bone graft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation with doses of 25 or 35 kGy, performed on dry ice or at ambient temperature, on mechanical properties of non-defatted or defatted compact bone grafts. Left and right femurs from six male cadaveric donors aged from 46 to 54 years, were transversely cut into slices of 10 mm height, parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bone. Compact bone rings were assigned to the eight experimental groups according to the different processing method (defatted or non-defatted), as well as gamma irradiation dose (25 or 35 kGy) and temperature conditions of irradiation (ambient temperature or dry ice). Axial compression testing was performed with a material testing machine. Results obtained for elastic and plastic regions of stress–strain curves examined by univariate analysis are described. Based on multivariate analysis it was found that defatting of bone rings had no significant effect on any mechanical parameter studied, whereas irradiation with both doses decreased significantly the ultimate strain and its derivative toughness. The elastic limit and resilience were significantly increased by irradiation with the dose 25 kGy, but not 35 kGy, when the time of irradiation was longer. Additionally, irradiation at ambient temperature decreased maximum load, elastic limit, resilience, and ultimate stress. As strain in the elastic region was not affected, decreased elastic limit resulted in lower resilience. The opposite phenomenon was observed in the plastic region, where in spite of the lower ultimate stress, the toughness was increased due to the increase in the ultimate strain. The results of our study suggest that there may be an association between mechanical properties of bone tissue grafts and the damage process of collagen structure during gamma irradiation. This collagen damage in cortical bone allografts containing water does not depends on the temperature of irradiation or defatting during processing if dose of gamma irradiation does not exceed 35 kGy.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Similar content being viewed by others

Abbreviations

G:

Gamma

EB:

Electron beam

CT:

Computed tomography

AT:

Ambient temperature

DI:

Dry ice

DF:

Defatted

NDF:

Non-defatted

References

  • Anderson MJ, Keyak JH, Skinner HB (1992) Compressive mechanical properties of human cancellous bone after gamma irradiation. J Bone Joint Surg 74-A:747–752

    Google Scholar 

  • Bailey AJ (1968) Effect of ionising radiation on connective tissue components. Int Rev Connect Tissue Res 4:233–281

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Berrey BH Jr, Lord CF, Gebhardt MC, Mankin HJ (1990) Fractures of allografts. Frequency, treatment, and end-results. J Bone Joint Surg 72-A:825–833

    Google Scholar 

  • Bowes JH, Moss JA (1962) The effect of gamma irradiation on collagen. Radiat Res 16:211–223

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bright RW, Burstein AH (1978) Material properties of preserved cortical bone. Trans Orthop Res Soc 3:210–215

    Google Scholar 

  • Buck BE, Resnick L, Shah SM, Malinin TI (1990) Human immunodeficiency virus cultured from bone: implications for transplantation. Clin Orthop 251:249–253

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Burstein AH, Zika JM, Heiple KG, Klein L (1975) Contribution of collagen and mineral to the elastic-plastic properties of bone. J Bone Joint Surg 57-A:956–961

    Google Scholar 

  • Cheung DT, Perclman N, Tong D, Nimni ME (1990) The effect of γ-irradiation on collagen molecules isolated alpha-chains and crosslinked native fibers. J Biomed Meter Res 24:581–589

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Conrad EU, Greth D, Obermeyer K, Moogk M, Sayers M, Wilson J, Strong DM (1995) The transmission of hepatitis C virus through tissue transplantation. J Bone Joint Surg 77-A:214–224

    Google Scholar 

  • Cornu O, Banse X, Docquier PL, Luyckx S, Delloye C (2000) Effect of freeze-drying and gamma irradiation on the mechanical properties of human cancellous bone. J Orthop Res 18:426–431

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Currey JD, Foreman J, Laketic I, Mitchell J, Pegg DE, Reilly GC (1997) Effects of ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of human bone. J Orthop Res 15:111–117

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dziedzic-Goclawska A, Stachowicz W (1997) Sterilization of tissue allografts. In: Phillips GO (ed) Advances in tissue banking, vol 1. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., pp 261–321

  • Dziedzic-Goclawska A, Kaminski A, Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz I, Stachowicz W (2005) Irradiation as a safety procedure in tissue banking. Cell Tissue Bank 6:201–219

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Eastlund T (2005) Viral infections transmitted through tissue transplantation. In: Kennedy JF, Phillips GO, Williams PA (eds) Sterilisation of tissues using ionising radiations. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, pp 255–278

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Eastlund T (2006) Bacterial infection transmitted by human tissue allograft transplantation. Cell Tissue Bank 7:147–166

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Eastlund E, Winters MK (2010) Testing the tissue and the environment. In: Galea G (ed) Essentials of tissue banking. London, New York, Heidelberg, pp 167–187

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Eggen BM, Norbdo SA (1992) Transmission of HCV by organ transplantation. N Engl J Med 326:411–416

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fideler BM, Vangsness CT, Moore T, Li Z, Rasheed S (1994) Effect of gamma irradiation on the human immunodeficiency virus. J Bone Joint Surg 76-A:1032–1035

    Google Scholar 

  • Godette GA, Kopta JA, Egle DM (1996) Biomechanical effects of gamma irradiation on fresh frozen allografts in vivo. Orthopedics 19:649–653

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hamer AJ, Strachan JR, Black MM, Ibbotson C, Elson RA (1995) A new method of comparative bone strength measurement. J Med Eng Technol 19:1–5

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hamer AJ, Strachan JR, Black MM, Ibbotson CJ, Stockley I, Elson RA (1996) Biomechanical properties of cortical allograft bone using a new method of bone strength measurement. A comparison of fresh, fresh-frozen and irradiated bone. J Bone Joint Surg 78-B:363–368

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamer AJ, Stockley I, Elson RA (1999) Changes in allograft bone irradiated at different temperatures. J Bone Joint Surg 81-B:342–344

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hernigou P, Delepine G, Goutallier D, Julieron A (1993) Massive allografts sterilised by irradiation. Clinical results. J Bone Joint Surg 75-B:904–913

    Google Scholar 

  • Itoman M, Nakamura S (1991) Experimental study on allogenic bone grafts. Int Orthop 15:161–165

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kaminski A, Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz I, Stachowicz W (2010) Sterilisation by irradiation. In: Galea G (ed) Essentials of tissue banking. London, New York, Heidelberg, pp 123–138

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Knaepler H, Koch F, Bugany H (1992) Studies on HIV inactivation in allogeneic bone transplants using chemical disinfection and radioactive irradiation. Unfallchirurgie 18:1–6

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Komender A (1976) Influence of preservation on some mechanical properties of human haversian bone. Mater Med Pol 8:13–17

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Loty B, Courpied JP, Tomeno B, Postel M, Forest M, Abelanet R (1990) Bone allografts sterilised by irradiation: biological properties, procurement and results of 150 massive allografts. Int Orthop 14:237–242

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mankin HJ, Springfield DS, Gebhardt MC, Tomford WW (1992) Current status of allografting for bone tumors. Orthopedics 15:1147–1154

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mnaymneh W, Malinin IT, Makley JT, Dick HM (1985) Massive osteoarticular allografts in the reconstruction of extremities following resection of tumors not requiring chemotherapy and radiation. Clin Orthop 197:76–87

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Moreau MF, Gallois Y, Basle MF, Chappard D (2000) Gamma irradiation of human bone allografts alters medullar lipids and releases toxic compounds for osteoblast-like cells. Biomaterials 21:369–376

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Offergeld R, Faensen D, Ritter S, Hamouda O (2005) Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C and hepatitis B infections among blood donors in Germany 2000–2002: risk of virus transmission and the impact of nucleic acid amplification testing. Euro Surveill 10(2):pii = 522. Available online: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=522

  • Pelker RR, Friedlaender RR, Markham TC, Pinjabi MM, Moen CJ (1984) Effects of freezing and freeze-drying on the biomechanical properties of rat bone. J Orthop Res 1:405–411

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pelker RR, Friedlaender GE, Markham TC (1993) Biomechanical properties of bone allografts. Clin Orthop 174:54–57

    Google Scholar 

  • Pereira B, Molford E, Kirkman R (1993) Low risk of liver disease after tissue transplantation from donors with HCV. Lancet 341:903–904

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pruss A, Kao M, Gohs U, Koscielny J, von Versen R, Pauli G (2002) Effect of gamma irradiation on human cortical bone transplants contaminated with enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. Biologicals 3:125–133

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pruss A, Caspari G, Krüger DH, Blümel J, Nübling CM, Gerlich L, Gürtler WH (2010) Tissue donation and virus safety: more nucleic acid amplification testing is needed. Transpl Infect Dis 12:375–386

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Salehpour A, Butler DL, Proch FS, Schwartz HE, Feder SM, Feder CM, Ratcliff A (1995) Dose-dependent response of gamma irradiation on mechanical properties and related biochemical composition of goat bone-patellar tendon-bone allografts. J Orthop Res 13:898–906

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sedlin ED, Hirsh C (1966) Factors affecting the determination of the physical properties of femoral cortical bone. Acta Orthop Scand 37:29–48

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Simonds RJ, Hholmberg DS, Hurwitz RL, Coleman TR, Bottenfield S, Conley LJ, Kohlenberg SH, Kastro KG, Dahan BA, Schable CA (1992) Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from seronegative organ and tissue donor. N Engl J Med 326:726–732

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stevenson S (1999) Biology of bone grafts. Orthop Clin North Am 30:543–552

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Strong DM, Nelson K, Pierce M, Stramer SL (2005) Preventing disease transmission by deceased tissue donors by testing blood for viral nucleic acid. Cell Tissue Bank 6:255–262

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Thompson RC Jr, Garg A, Clohisy DR, Cheng EY (2000) Fractures in large-segment allografts. Clin Orthop Relat Res 370:227–235

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tomford WW, Starkweather RJ, Goldman MH (1981) The study of the clinical incidence of infection in the use of the banked allografts bone. J Bone Joint Surg 63-A:244–248

    Google Scholar 

  • Tomford WW, Thongphasuk J, Mankin HJ, Ferraro MJ (1990) Frozen musculoskeletal grafts. A study of the clinical incidence and causes of infection associated with their use. J Bone Joint Surg 38-A:862–884

    Google Scholar 

  • Tosello (1994–1995) Conditions optimales d’irradiation de type gamma en vue de l’inactivation du VIH pre′sent dans les fragments osseux. Conse′quences sur la re′sistance biome′caniques du tissu osseux. [Optimal conditions of gamma type irradiation for inactivating HIV in bone fragments. Consequences in biomechanical resistance of the bone tissue] Chirurgie 1994–1995 120(2):104–106

  • Turner CH, Burr DB (1993) Basic biomechanical measurements of bone: a tutorial. Bone 14:595–608

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vastel L, Masse C, Crozier E, Padilla F, Laugier P, Mitton D, Bardonnet R, Courpied J-P (2007) Effects of gamma irradiation on mechanical properties of defatted trabecular bone allografts assessed by speed -of-sound measurement. Cell Tissue Bank 8(3):205–210

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Voggenreiter G, Ascherl R, Bluemel G, Schmit-Neuerburg KR (1994) Effects of preservation and sterilization on cortical bone grafts. A scanning electron microscopic study. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 113:294–296

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhou Z, Gin T, Yang J, Shen B, Kang P, Pei F (2011) Mechanical strength of cortical allografts with gamma radiation versus ethylene oxide sterilization. Acta Orthop Belg 77:670–675

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by: IAEA Research Contract No: 16114/R0, Project CRP E3.10.06, Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education Grants: Nr 771/W-IAEA/2010/0, Nr 771/1/W-IAEA/10/2011/0 and Medical University of Warsaw Statute Grant 1M17/N/10.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Artur Kaminski.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kaminski, A., Jastrzebska, A., Grazka, E. et al. Effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical properties of human cortical bone: influence of different processing methods. Cell Tissue Bank 13, 363–374 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10561-012-9308-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10561-012-9308-2

Keywords

Navigation