Skip to main content
Log in

Historical perspectives and the future of adverse reactions associated with haemopoietic stem cells cryopreserved with dimethyl sulfoxide

  • Published:
Cell and Tissue Banking Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

A retrospective review of the published literature identified several hundred adverse reactions (e.g. nausea, chills, cardiac arrhythmias, neurological symptoms and respiratory arrest) associated with the transplantation of stem cells cryopreserved with dimethyl sulfoxide. The occurrences of these are generally accepted as commonplace, as the majority of reactions are transient, whilst a few patients may require clinical treatment. This exploratory study is a collation of the historical data and the expectations for the notification of serious adverse reactions. Outline information is presented on the development of related European Directives, some technical aspects of dimethyl sulfoxide and the sequential stages of preservation and administration.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Abdelkefi A, Lakhal A, Moojat N, Hamed LB, Fekih J, Ladeb S, Torjman L, Benothman T (2009) Severe neurotoxicity associated with dimethyl sulphoxide following PBSCT. Bone Marrow Transplant 44(5):323–324

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Abrahamsen JF, Bakken AM, Bruserud O (2002) Cryopreserving human peripheral blood progenitor cells with 5% rather than 10% DMSO results in less apoptosis and necrosis in CD34+ cells. Transfusion 42(12):1573–1580

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Abrahamsen JF, Rusten L, Bakken AM, Bruserud O (2004) Better preservation of early hematopoietic progenitor cells when human peripheral blood progenitor cells are cryopreserved with 5% dimethylsulfoxide instead of 10% dimethylsulfoxide. Transfusion 44(5):785–789

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ademokun JA, Chapman C, Dunn J, Lander D, Mair K, Proctor SJ et al (1997) Umbilical cord blood collection and separation for haematopoietic progenitor cell banking. Bone Marrow Transplant 19(10):1023–1028

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Adorno G, Bruno A, Caravita T, Venditti A, Ballatore G, Santinelli S et al (1998) Red blood cell depletion of cord blood using hydroxyethylstarch double sedimentation: analysis of 40 cases. Clin Lab Haematol 20(6):341–343

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Akkok CA, Liseth K, Nesthus I, Lokeland T, Tefre K, Bruserud O et al (2008) Autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells cryopreserved with 5 and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide alone give comparable hematopoietic reconstitution after transplantation. Transfusion 48(5):877–883

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Akkok CA, Liseth K, Hervig T, Ryningen A, Bruserud O, Ersvaer E (2009) Use of different DMSO concentrations for cryopreservation of autologous peripheral blood stem cell grafts does not have any major impact on levels of leukocyte and platelet-derived soluble mediators. Cytotherapy 11(6):749–760

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Alessandrino P, Bernasconi P, Caldera D, Colombo A, Bonfichi M, Malcovati L et al (1999) Adverse events occurring during bone marrow or peripheral blood progenitor cell infusion: analysis of 126 cases. Bone Marrow Transplant 23(6):533–537

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Angelini A, Iacone A, Dragani A, Accorsi P, D’Antonio D, Geraci L et al (1988) Enrichment of marrow haemopoietic progenitor cells using a blood cell processor. Int J Artif Organs 11(1):57–60

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ayello J, Hesdorffer C, Reiss RF (1995) A semi automated technique for volume reduction of stem cell suspensions for transplantation. J Hematother 4:545–549

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bakken AM, Bruserud O, Abrahamsen JF (2003) No differences in colony formation of peripheral blood stem cells frozen with 5 or 10% dimethyl sulfoxide. J Hematother Stem Cell Res 12(3):351–358

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bauwens D, Hantson P, Laterre PF, Michaux L, Latinne D, De Tourtchaninoff M, Cosnard G, Hernalsteen D (2005) Recurrent seizures and sustained encephalopathy associated with dimethylsulfoxide-preserved stem cell infusion. Leuk Lymphoma 46(11):1671–1674

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Beaujean F, Hartmann O, Kuentz M, Le Forestier C, Divine M, Duedari N (1991) A simple efficient washing procedure for cryopreserved human haemopoietic stem cells prior to infusion. Bone Marrow Transplant 8(4):291–294

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Benekli M, Anderson B, Wentling D, Bernstein S, Czuczman M, McCarthy P (2000) Severe respiratory depression after dimethyl sulphoxide-containing autologous stem cell infusion in a patient with AL amyloidosis. Bone Marrow Transplant 25(12):1299–1301

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bojanic I, Cepulic BG, Mazic S, Batinic D, Nemet D, Labar B (2008) Toxicity related to autologous peripheral blood haematopoietic progenitor cell infusion is associated with number of granulocytes in graft, gender and diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Vox Sang 95(1):70–75

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bond GR, Curry SC, Dahl DW (1989) Dimethyl sulphoxide-induced encephalopathy. Lancet 1(8647):1134–1135

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Calmels B, Houze P, Hengesse JC, Ducrot T, Malenfant C, Chabannon C (2003) Preclinical evaluation of an automated closed fluid management device: cytomate, for washing out DMSO from hematopoietic stem cell grafts after thawing. Bone Marrow Transplant 31(9):823–828

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Calmels B, Lemarie C, Esterni B, Malugani C, Charbonnier A, Coso D et al (2007) Occurrence and severity of adverse events after autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell infusion are related to the amount of granulocytes in the apheresis product. Transfusion 47(7):1268–1275

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chen-Plotkin AS, Vossel KA, Samuels MA, Chen MH (2007) Encephalopathy, stroke and myocardial infarction with DMSO use in stem cell transplantation. Neurology 68:859–861

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Clark T, Murray JS, Lane P, Politzer P (2008) Why are dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethyl sulfone such good solvents? J Mol Model 14(8):689–697

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cordoba R, Arrieta R, Kerguelen A, Hernandez-Navarro F (2007) The occurrence of adverse events during the infusion of autologous peripheral blood stem cells is related to the number of granulocytes in the leukapheresis product. Bone Marrow Transplant 40(11):1063–1067

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Corso S, Vukelja SJ, Wiener D, Baker WJ (1993) Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage following autologous bone marrow infusion. Bone Marrow Transplant 12(3):301–303

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Curcoy AI, Alcorta I, Estella J, Rives S, Toll T, Tuset E (2002) Cryopreservation of HPCs with high cell concentration in 5% DMSO for transplantation to children. Transfusion 42(7):962

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Darabi K, Brown JR, Kao GS (2005) Paradoxical embolism after peripheral blood stem cell infusion. Bone Marrow Transplant 36(6):561–562

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Davis JM, Rowley SD, Braine HG, Piantadosi S, Santos GW (1990) Clinical toxicity of cryopreserved bone marrow graft infusion. Blood 75(3):781–786

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Decot V, Houze P, Stoltz JF, Bensoussan D (2009) Quantification of residual dimethylsulfoxide after washing cryopreserved stem cells and thawing tissue grafts. Biomed Mater Eng 19(4–5):293–300

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dhodapkar M, Goldberg SL, Tefferi A, Gertz MA (1994) Reversible encephalopathy after cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cell infusion. Am J Hematol 45(2):187–188

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Directive 2002/98/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 27th January 2003 setting standards of quality and safety for the collection, testing, processing, storage and distribution of human blood and blood components and amending Directive 2001/83/EC. Official Journal of the European Union, L33/30, 08/02/2003

  • Directive 2004/23/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 31st March 2004 on setting the standards of quality and safety for the donation procurement, testing, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells. Official Journal of the European Union, L102/48 07/04/2004

  • Directive 2006/17/EC of 8th February 2006 implementing Directive 2004/23/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards certain technical requirements for donation, procurement and testing of human tissues and cells. Official Journal of the European Union, L38/40 09/02/2006

  • Directive 2006/86/EC of the 24th October 2006 implementing Directive 2004/23/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards traceability requirements, notification of serious adverse reactions and events and certain technical requirements for the coding, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells. Official Journal of the European Union, L294/32 25/10/2006

  • Donmez A, Tombuloglu M, Gungor A, Soyer N, Saydam G, Cagirgan S (2007) Clinical side effects during peripheral blood progenitor cell infusion. Transfus Apher Sci 36(1):95–101

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dorozynski A (1999) Former French ministers on trial over blood. BMJ 318:76

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ferrucci PF, Martinoni A, Cocorocchio E, Civelli M, Cinieri S, Cardinale D, Peccatori F, Lamantia G, Agazzi A, Corsini C, Tealdo F, Fiorentini C, Cipolla C, Fermond J, Arnutt B, Mounier N, Ertant M, Lotz J, Galacier L, Raffoux E, Bentuman N, Marolleau J, Larghero J (2000) Evaluation of acute toxicities associated with autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell reinfusion in patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy. Bone Marrow Transplant 25(2):173–177

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fois E, Desmartin M, Benhamida S, Xavier F, Vanneaux V, Rea D, Fermond J, Arnutt J, Mounier N, Ertant M, Lotz J, Galacier L, Raffoux E, Bentuman N, Marolleau J, Larghero J (2007) Recovery, viability and clinical toxicity of thawed and washed haematopoietic progenitor cells: analysis of 952 autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantations. Bone Marrow Transplant 40(9):831–835

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Galmes A, Besalduch J, Bargay J, Novo A, Morey M, Guerra JM et al (1999) Long-term storage at −80°C of hematopoietic progenitor cells with 5% dimethyl sulfoxide as the sole cryoprotectant. Transfusion 39(1):70–73

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Galmes A, Gutierrez A, Sampol A, Canaro M, Morey M, Iglesias J et al (2007) Long-term hematological reconstitution and clinical evaluation of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation after cryopreservation of cells with 5 and 10% dimethylsulfoxide at −80°C in a mechanical freezer. Haematologica 92(7):986–989

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Golubic B, Bojanic I (2010) Vigilance of stem cell collection and reinfusion in university hospital centre Zagreb: 12th international haemovigilance seminar. Blood Transfus 8(Suppl 1):4–5

    Google Scholar 

  • Gomez S, Nagler A, Naparstek E, Slavin S (1991) Transient elevation of serum lactic dehydrogenase following autologous bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 7(6):487–488

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Guide to the preparation, use and quality assurance of blood components, 15th Edition Council of Europe, (2009). http://www.edqm.eu/en/Blood-transfusion-organ-transplantation-guides-1131.html

  • Halle P, Tournilhac O, Knopinska-Posluszny W, Kanold J, Gembara P, Boiret N, Rapatel C, Berger H, Travade P, Augielski S, Bouhomme J, Demeocq F (2001) Uncontrolled-rate freezing and storage at −80°C, with only 3.5% DMSO in cryoprotective solution for 109 autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantations. Transfusion 41(5):667–673

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hequet O, Dumontet C, El Jaafari-Corbin A, Salles G, Espinouse D, Arnaud P, Thieblemont C, Bouafia F, Coiffer B (2002) Epileptic seizures after autologous peripheral blood progenitor infusion in a patient treated with high-dose chemotherapy for myeloma. Bone Marrow Transplant 29(6):544

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Higman MA, Port JD, Beauchamp NJ Jr, Chen AR (2000) Reversible leukoencephalopathy associated with re-infusion of DMSO preserved stem cells. Bone Marrow Transplant 26(7):797–800

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hoyt R, Szer J, Grigg A (2000) Neurological events associated with the infusion of cryopreserved bone marrow and/or peripheral blood progenitor cells. Bone Marrow Transplant 25(12):1285–1287

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hunt CJ, Pegg DE, Armitage SE (2006) Optimising cryopreservation protocols for haematopoietic progenitor cells: a methodological approach for umbilical cord blood. Cryo Lett 27(2):73–86

    Google Scholar 

  • Junior AM, Arrais CA, Saboya R, Velasques RD, Junqueira PL, Dulley FL (2008) Neurotoxicity associated with dimethylsulfoxide-preserved hematopoietic progenitor cell infusion. Bone Marrow Transplant 41(1):95–96

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kessinger A, Schmit-Pokorny K, Smith D, Armitage J (1990) Cryopreservation and infusion of autologous peripheral blood stem cells. Bone Marrow Transplant 5(Suppl 1):25–27

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Keung YK, Lau S, Elkayam U, Chen SC, Douer D (1994) Cardiac arrhythmia after infusion of cryopreserved stem cells. Bone Marrow Transplant 14(3):363–367

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Koliakos G, Alamdari DH, Tsagias N, Kouzi-Koliakos K, Michaloudi E, Karagiannis V (2007) A novel high-yield volume-reduction method for the cryopreservation of UC blood units. Cytotherapy 9(7):654–659

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Konuma T, Ooi J, Takahashi S, Tomonari A, Tsukada N, Kobayashi T, Sato A, Kato S, Kasahara S, Elihara Y, Nagamura-Inoue T, Tsuji K, Tojo A, Asano S (2008) Cardiovascular toxicity of cryopreserved cord blood cell infusion. Bone Marrow Transplant 41(10):861–865

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lakota J, Fuchsberger P (1996) Autologous stem cell transplantation with stem cells preserved in the presence of 4.5 and 2.2% DMSO. Bone Marrow Transplant 18(1):262–263

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Laroche V, McKenna DH, Moroff G, Schierman T, Kadidlo D, McCullough J (2005) Cell loss and recovery in umbilical cord blood processing: a comparison of post thaw and post wash samples. Transfusion 45(12):1909–1916

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lemarie C, Calmels B, Malenfant C, Arneodo V, Blaise D, Viret F et al (2005) Clinical experience with the delivery of thawed and washed autologous blood cells, with an automated closed fluid management device: cytomate. Transfusion 45(5):737–742

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Liseth K, Abrahamsen JF, Bjorsvik S, Grottebo K, Bruserud O (2005) The viability of cryopreserved PBPC depends on the DMSO concentration and the concentration of nucleated cells in the graft. Cytotherapy 7(4):328–333

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lopez-Jimenez J, Cervero C, Murioz A, Hernandez-Madrid A, Fernandez J, Garcia J, Moro C, Maldonado M, Perez J, Otheo E (1994) Cardiovascular toxicities related to the infusion of cryopreserved graft: result of a controlled study. Bone Marrow Transplant 13:789–793

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Madkaikar M, Gupta M, Ghosh K, Swaminathan S, Sonawane L, Mohanty D (2007) Optimising methods of red cell sedimentation from cord blood to maximise nucleated cell recovery prior to cryopreservation. Br J Biomed Sci 64(4):157–159

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mandanas RA, Kratochvil K, Garner T, Selby GB (1999) Formation of fibrin clots in cryopreserved stem cell bags during thawing procedure: lack of impact on engraftment in autologous stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 23(3):303–304

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Martino M, Morabito F, Messina G, Irrera G, Pucci G, Iacopino P (1996) Fractionated infusions of cryopreserved stem cells may prevent DMSO-induced major cardiac complications in graft recipients. Haematologica 81(1):59–61

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Milone G, Mercurio S, Strano A, Leotta S, Pinto V, Battiato K, Coppoletta S, Murgano P, Farsaci B, Privitera A, Giustolisi R (2007) Adverse events after infusions of cryopreserved hematopoietic stem cells depend on non-mononuclear cells in the infused suspension and patient age. Cytotherapy 9(4):348–355

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Miniero R, Vai S, Giacchino M, Giubellino C, Madon E (1992) Severe respiratory depression after autologous bone marrow infusion. Haematologica 77(1):98–99

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mueller LP, Theurich S, Christopeit M, Grothe W, Muetherig A, Weber T, Guenther S, Behre G (2007) Neurotoxicity upon infusion of dimethylsulfoxide-cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cells in patients with and without pre-existing cerebral disease. Eur J Haematol 78(6):527–531

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Okamoto Y, Takaue Y, Saito S, Shimizu T, Suzue T, Abe T, Sato J, Hirao A, Watanabe T, Kawano Y, Kurado Y (1993) Toxicities associated with cryopreserved, thawed peripheral blood stem cell autografts in children with active cancer. Transfusion 33(7):578–581

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Online document 1. http://www.eusite.org

  • Online document 2. Dimethyl Sulfoxide USP, PhEur in approved pharmaceutical products and medical devices

  • Online document 3. National classification index: common toxicity criteria http://ctep.cancer.gov/protocoldevelopment/electronic_applications/docs/ctcmanual_v4_10-4-99.pdf

  • Online document 4. http://ec.europa.eu/health/blood_tissues_organs/docs/tissues_responses_2008_en.pdf

  • Online document 5. Eurocet registry. http://www.eurocet.org

  • Online document 6. Substances of human origin project. www.sohovs.org

  • Otrock Z, Beydoun A, Barada WM, Masroujeh R, Hourani R, Bazarbachi A (2008) Transient global amnesia associated with the infusion of DMSO-cryopreserved autologous peripheral blood stem cells. Haematologi 93(3):36–37

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ozdemir E, Akgedik K, Akdogan S, Kansu E (2008) The lollipop with strawberry aroma may be promising in reduction of infusion-related nausea and vomiting during the infusion of cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cells. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 14(12):1425–1428

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Perseghin P, Balduzzi A, Bonanomi S, Dassi M, Buscemi F, Longoni D, Rovelli A, Uderzo C (2000) Infusion-related side-effects in children undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia. Bone Marrow Transplant 26(1):116–118

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Petropoulou AD, Bellochine R, Norol F, Marie JP, Rio B (2007) Coronary artery spasm after infusion of cryopreserved cord blood cells. Bone Marrow Transplant 40(4):397–398

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rapoport AP, Rowe JM, Packman CH, Ginsberg SJ (1991) Cardiac arrest after autologous marrow infusion. Bone Marrow Transplant 7(5):401–403

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Regulation 1394/2007 of the European Parliament and the Council of 13 November 2007 on advanced therapy medicinal products and amending Directive 2001/83/EC and Regulation (EC) No 726/2004

  • Richter E, Eichler H, Raske D, Leveringhaus A, Zieger W, Kerowgan M et al (1998) Five percent Me2SO is sufficient to preserve stem cells derived from cord blood. Bone Marrow Transplant 22(Suppl 1):S16

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rosskopf K et al (1999) Clots in cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cell concentrates at time of thawing: possible causes and prophylactic strategies. Bone Marrow Transplant 40:1063–1067

    Google Scholar 

  • Rowley SD, Anderson GL (1993) Effect of DMSO exposure without cryopreservation on hematopoietic progenitor cells. Bone Marrow Transplant 11(5):389–393

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rowley SD, MacLeod B, Heimfeld S, Holmberg L, Besinger W (1999a) Severe central nervous system toxicity associated with the infusion of cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cell components. Cytotherapy 1:311–317

    Google Scholar 

  • Rowley SD, Feng Z, Yadock D, Holmberg L, MacLeod B, Heimfeld S (1999b) Post-thaw removal of DMSO does not completely abrogate infusion toxicity or the need for pre-infusion histamine blockade. Cytotherapy 1(6):439–446

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ruiz-Delgado G, Mancia-Guerra C, Tamez-Gomez E, Rodríguez-Romo LN, López-Otero A, Hernández-Arizpe A, Gómez-Almaguer D, Ruiz-Argüelles GJ (2009) Dimethyl sulfoxide-induced toxicity in cord blood stem cell transplantation: report of three cases and review of the literature. Acta Haematol 122:1–5

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schlegel P, Wolfi M, Schick J, Winkler B, Eyrich M (2009) Transient loss of conscientiousness in pediatric recipients of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cells independent of morphine co-medication. Haematologica 94(10):1473–1475

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stroncek DF, Fautsch SK, Lasky LC, Hurd DD, Ramsay NK, McCullough J (1991) Adverse reactions in patients transfused with cryopreserved marrow. Transfusion 31(6):521–526

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Styler M, Topolsky D, Crilley P, Covelsky V, Bryan R, Brodsky I (1992) Transient high grade heart block following autologous bone marrow infusion. Bone Marrow Transplant 10:435–810

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Syme R, Bewick M, Stewart D, Porter K, Chadderton T, Gluck S (2004) The role of depletion of dimethyl sulfoxide before autografting: on hematologic recovery, side effects and toxicity. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 10(2):135–141

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Windrum P, Morris TC (2003) Severe neurotoxicity because of dimethyl sulphoxide following peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 31(4):315

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Windrum P, Morris TC, Drake MB, Niederwieser D, Ruutu T (2005) Variation in dimethyl sulfoxide use in stem cell transplantation: a survey of EBMT centres. Bone Marrow Transplant 36(7):601–603

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yellowlees P, Greenfield C, McIntyre N (1980) Dimethylsulphoxide-induced toxicity. Lancet 2(8202):1004–1006

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zambelli A, Poggi G, Da PG, Pedrazzoli P, Cuomo A, Miotti D et al (1998) Clinical toxicity of cryopreserved circulating progenitor cells infusion. Anticancer Res 18(6B):4705–4708

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zenhausern R, Tobler A, Leoncini L, Hess OM, Ferrari P (2000) Fatal cardiac arrhythmia after infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide-cryopreserved hematopoietic stem cells in a patient with severe primary cardiac amyloidosis and end-stage renal failure. Ann Hematol 79(9):523–526

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge the informative suggestions and scientific input by the late Dr Alan H. Cox. The authors also appreciate the technical and editorial review of earlier drafts by Joachim R. Karlsen and Charlotte Henriksen of the Danish Medicines Agency.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michael A. Cox.

Additional information

This article expresses the views of the authors and does not represent any formal regulatory position on stem cells.

All URL links accessed February 2011.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Cox, M.A., Kastrup, J. & Hrubiško, M. Historical perspectives and the future of adverse reactions associated with haemopoietic stem cells cryopreserved with dimethyl sulfoxide. Cell Tissue Bank 13, 203–215 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10561-011-9248-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10561-011-9248-2

Keywords

Navigation